Volume 18, Number 8—August 2012
Volume 18, Number 8—August 2012 PDF Version [PDF - 5.45 MB - 183 pages]
Medscape CME Activity
Vaccination of Health Care Workers to Protect Patients at Increased Risk for Acute Respiratory Disease PDF Version [PDF - 379 KB - 10 pages]G. P. Dolan et al.View Summary
Evidence is limited but sufficient to sustain current vaccination recommendations.
VIM-2–producing Multidrug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa ST175 Clone, Spain
PDF Version [PDF - 237 KB - 7 pages]
E. Viedma et al.View Summary
This clone is a major public health problem because it limits antimicrobial drug therapy.
Outbreak of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase–producing Klebsiella oxytoca Infections Associated with Contaminated Handwashing Sinks
PDF Version [PDF - 344 KB - 6 pages]
C. Lowe et al.View Summary
Sinks are a potential reservoir for environment-to-patient and patient-to-patient transmission.
Population Diversity among Bordetella pertussis Isolates, United States, 1935–2009
PDF Version [PDF - 365 KB - 8 pages]
A. J. Schmidtke et al.View Summary
Resurgence of pertussis was not directly correlated with changes in vaccine composition or schedule.
Solid Organ Transplant–associated Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis, United States, 2011
PDF Version [PDF - 273 KB - 7 pages]
A. MacNeil et al.View Summary
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) is carried by rodents. In very rare instances, it has been transmitted from person-to-person by organ transplantation. In 2011, a total of 14 organ recipients were infected with the virus, of which 11 died in the United States. The 4 most recent patients received organs from the same donor, which resulted in 2 deaths. Only after these 4 organ recipients became sick was it discovered that the donor had been exposed to rodents. Had this exposure been known before transplantation, the organ recipients may have been more closely monitored. Early diagnosis and treatment might have improved their chances of survival. Although organ donor screening reduces the risk for transmission of some viruses, it is not possible to screen for all possible viruses, including LCMV. For patients who get severely ill after receiving a transplant, clinicians should add LCMV infection to their list of possible causes.
Medscape CME Activity
Paragonimus kellicotti Flukes in Missouri, USA PDF Version [PDF - 213 KB - 5 pages]M. A. Lane et al.View Summary
You don’t have to be a contestant on Fear Factor to eat unusual things. An investigation of 9 new cases of lung fluke infection in Missouri found that in all cases, patients had eaten raw crayfish while on rafting or camping trips and most had been drinking alcohol. Although all patients recovered after treatment, a few whose diagnosis was delayed had unnecessary procedures and serious illness. Physicians should consider lung fluke infection in patients with nonspecific cough and fever, especially patients who have recently returned from a recreational river trip. Crayfish in Missouri rivers often carry lung flukes and should not be eaten raw.
Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 3 in Wild Rats, United States
PDF Version [PDF - 328 KB - 6 pages]
J. B. Lack et al.View Summary
Rodents infected with this virus may be a serious threat to public health.
Hepatitis E Virus Strains in Rabbits and Evidence of a Closely Related Strain in Humans, France
PDF Version [PDF - 383 KB - 8 pages]
J. Izopet et al.View Summary
The host range of HEV in Europe is expanding, and zoonotic transmission of HEV from rabbits is possible.
Hepatitis E Virus in Pork Production Chain in Czech Republic, Italy, and Spain, 2010
PDF Version [PDF - 332 KB - 8 pages]
I. Di Bartolo et al.View Summary
Processing does not substantially abate endogenous virus.
Medscape CME Activity
Factors Related to Increasing Prevalence of Resistance to Ciprofloxacin and Other Antimicrobial Drugs in Neisseria gonorrhoeae, United States PDF Version [PDF - 311 KB - 8 pages]E. Goldstein et al.View Summary
What would you do if you had a sexually transmitted disease that was untreatable with antibiotics? That is the situation we may be heading toward. In the United States, gonorrhea is the second most common reportable infection. Over the years, the organism that causes it, N. gonorrhoeae, has acquired resistance to several classes of antibiotics including, most recently, the fluoroquinolones. In fact, widespread resistance led CDC to stop recommending fluoroquinolones for gonorrhea treatment in 2007. Today, cephalosporin-based combination therapy is the last remaining option currently recommended for gonorrhea treatment. Understanding of the causes of drug resistance is needed so that control measures can be improved and the effectiveness of the few remaining drugs can be maintained. This article investigates possible causes for the emergence of fluoroquinolone-resistant N. gonorrhoeae that occurred several years ago. Fluoroquinolone-resistant strains spread in the United States in the late 1990s and spread more rapidly among men who have sex with men (MSM) than among heterosexual men. One possible explanation for the rise in drug resistance, especially among heterosexuals, is acquisition of resistant gonorrhea through travel. Certain drug-resistant strains of N. gonorrhoeae, particularly the multidrug resistant strains (also resistant to penicillin and tetracycline) circulating among MSM, seemed to be able to reach high prevalence levels through domestic transmission, rather than through frequent importation. After resistance emerged in a geographic area, resistant strains appeared among MSM and heterosexuals within several months. When resistance is detected in either MSM or heterosexuals, prevention efforts should be directed toward both populations.
Comparison of Enzootic Risk Measures for Predicting West Nile Disease, Los Angeles, California, USA, 2004–2010
PDF Version [PDF - 305 KB - 9 pages]
J. L. Kwan et al.View Summary
The best model comprised enzootic surveillance data from avian, mosquito, and climate sources.
Molecular Epidemiologic Investigation of an Anthrax Outbreak among Heroin Users, Europe
PDF Version [PDF - 209 KB - 7 pages]
E. P. Price et al.View Summary
Heroin may have been accidentally contaminated by an animal-derived source along a major drug trafficking route.
Escherichia coli O104 Associated with Human Diarrhea, South Africa, 2004–2011
PDF Version [PDF - 371 KB - 4 pages]
N. P. Tau et al.
Vertical Transmission of Babesia microti, United States
PDF Version [PDF - 299 KB - 4 pages]
J. T. Joseph et al.
Klebsiella pneumoniae in Gastrointestinal Tract and Pyogenic Liver Abscess
PDF Version [PDF - 238 KB - 4 pages]
C. Fung et al.
Third-Generation Cephalosporin–Resistant Vibrio cholerae, India
PDF Version [PDF - 302 KB - 3 pages]
J. Mandal et al.
Seroprevalence and Cross-reactivity of Human Polyomavirus 9
PDF Version [PDF - 176 KB - 4 pages]
J. Nicol et al.
Lack of Evidence for Schmallenberg Virus Infection in Highly Exposed Persons, Germany, 2012
PDF Version [PDF - 175 KB - 3 pages]
T. Ducomble et al.
Capsular Switching in Invasive Neisseria meningitidis, Brazil
PDF Version [PDF - 146 KB - 3 pages]
T. Castiñeiras et al.
Avian Influenza and Ban on Overnight Poultry Storage in Live Poultry Markets, Hong Kong
PDF Version [PDF - 147 KB - 3 pages]
Y. Leung et al.
Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis Transmission and Resistance Amplification within Families
PDF Version [PDF - 250 KB - 4 pages]
J. A. Seddon et al.
Chloroquine-Resistant Malaria in Travelers Returning from Haiti after 2010 Earthquake
PDF Version [PDF - 183 KB - 4 pages]
M. Gharbi et al.
New Variants of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus, China, 2011
PDF Version [PDF - 240 KB - 4 pages]
W. Li et al.
Severe Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis Transmitted by Blood Transfusion
PDF Version [PDF - 321 KB - 4 pages]
M. Jereb et al.
Hepatitis E Virus in Pork Food Chain, United Kingdom, 2009–2010
PDF Version [PDF - 150 KB - 3 pages]
A. Berto et al.
Autochthonous Infections with Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 4, France
PDF Version [PDF - 269 KB - 4 pages]
P. Colson et al.
Putative Novel Genotype of Avian Hepatitis E Virus, Hungary, 2010
PDF Version [PDF - 258 KB - 4 pages]
K. Bányai et al.
Novel Hepatitis E Virus in Ferrets, the Netherlands
PDF Version [PDF - 216 KB - 2 pages]
V. Raj et al.
Epidemic Clostridium difficile Ribotype 027 in Chile
PDF Version [PDF - 196 KB - 3 pages]
C. Hernández-Rocha et al.
Zoonotic Pathogens among White-Tailed Deer, Northern Mexico, 2004–2009
PDF Version [PDF - 164 KB - 3 pages]
C. Medrano et al.
KIs Virus and Blood Donors, France
PDF Version [PDF - 157 KB - 2 pages]
P. Biagini et al.
Usefulness of School Absenteeism Data for Predicting Influenza Outbreaks, United States
PDF Version [PDF - 178 KB - 3 pages]
J. R. Egger et al.
Rhodococcus erythropolis Encephalitis in Patient Receiving Rituximab
PDF Version [PDF - 175 KB - 2 pages]
S. R. Bagdure et al.
Factors Influencing Emergence of Tularemia, Hungary, 1984–2010
PDF Version [PDF - 214 KB - 3 pages]
M. Gyuranecz et al.
Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteria in Hospital, Singapore
PDF Version [PDF - 165 KB - 3 pages]
I. Venkatachalam et al.
bla–positive Klebsiella pneumoniae from Environment, Vietnam
PDF Version [PDF - 225 KB - 3 pages]
R. Isozumi et al.
Rickettsia felis in Fleas, Southern Ethiopia, 2010
PDF Version [PDF - 156 KB - 2 pages]
O. Mediannikov et al.
Identification of Cause of Posttransplant Cachexia by PCR
PDF Version [PDF - 149 KB - 3 pages]
J. Guitard et al.
Murine Typhus in Drug Detoxification Facility, Yunnan Province, China, 2010
PDF Version [PDF - 191 KB - 3 pages]
W. Yang et al.
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome with Paracoccidioidomycosis
PDF Version [PDF - 188 KB - 3 pages]
F. von Glehn et al.
Books and Media
About the Cover
Peer Reviewed Report Available Online OnlyInfectious Disease Transmission during Organ and Tissue TransplantationM. A. Greenwald et al.View Summary
Transplantation of organs and tissues (bone, tendon, skin, cornea) will always be associated with some risk for transmission of infectious diseases from donor to recipient. Understanding and minimizing this risk is difficult for many reasons: donor screening processes vary, screening for every infectious organism is not possible, and assessment of recipient health after transplantation to determine possibility of disease transmission is often not adequate. In May 2010, the US Food and Drug Administration held a meeting to address these challenges and establish a research agenda for minimizing these transplant transmission risks. Attendees agreed that the focus should be on standardizing donor screening, compiling disease transmissibility data, monitoring of transplant recipients’ health, and assessing effectiveness of measures to minimize disease transmission. Collaboration and sharing of perspectives, experiences, and resources of all stakeholders in the transplantation process (government, private industry, and health care providers) can improve the safety of organ and tissue transplantation.
- Page created: October 19, 2012
- Page last updated: October 19, 2012
- Page last reviewed: October 19, 2012
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