Volume 25, Number 3—March 2019
Case Investigations of Infectious Diseases Occurring in Workplaces, United States, 2006–2015
|Industry category (NAICS code)||Occupations||Infectious diseases||References†|
|Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting (11)||Hunter||Brucellosis||(61)|
|Farmer||Variant influenza A(H3N2); Escherichia coli infection||(83); (71)|
|Manufacturing (31–33)||Drum maker||Anthrax||(2)|
|Poultry vaccine production worker||Salmonellosis||(29)|
|Furniture company worker||Tuberculosis||(54)|
|Slaughterhouse inspector||Q fever||(65)|
|Automobile manufacturing worker
|Transportation (48)||Truck driver||Streptococcus suis infection; cryptosporidiosis||(79); (88)|
|Pilot, flight attendant
|Professional, scientific, and technical services (54)
||Vaccinia virus infection, HIV infection, plague, cowpox, meningococcal disease, brucellosis
|Administrative support and waste management and remediation services (56)
|Education services (61)
||School employee, teacher
|Healthcare and social assistance (62)||Healthcare worker (security guard, nurse, nursing aide, physician, volunteer, environmental services)||Mumps; MRSA skin infection; norovirus gastroenteritis; adenovirus 14 infection; RSV infection; Trichophyton tonsurans skin infection; meningococcal disease; influenza; salmonellosis; Ebola virus disease; measles; TB||(51); (52); (56); (57); (62); (64); (66); (11,68); (87); (14); (92); (12,77)|
||E. coli infection
|Arts, entertainment, and recreation (71)||Wildlife biologist||Plague||(59)|
|Animal caretaker||MRSA skin infection||(63)|
|Adult film performer||HIV infection||(36)|
|Spa maintenance worker||MAC infection||(22)|
|Day camp counselor
|Food services (72)
||Cook, food server
||Norovirus gastroenteritis; salmonellosis; E. coli infection
|Other services except public administration (81)||Embalmer||TB||(16)|
|Animal refugee worker||Tuberculosis; sealpox virus infection||(28); (18)|
|Pet store worker||Salmonellosis||(74)|
||Melioidosis; dengue fever
|Public administration (92)||US Customs officer||Measles||(9,10)|
|Police officer||Meningococcal disease||(66)|
|Correctional officer||Cryptosporidiosis; Shiga toxin–producing E. coli infection; TB; coccidioidomycosis;||(78); (71); (12); (90)|
|Military||Legionellosis; TB||(73); (53)|
*An expanded version of this table showing complete details on all cases is available online (https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/EID/article/25/3/18-0708-T1.htm). HIV, human immunodeficiency virus; LCMV, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus; MAC, Mycobacterium avium complex; MRSA, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; RSV, respiratory syncytial virus; TB, tuberculosis. NAICS, 2012 North American Industry Classification System (https://www.census.gov/eos/www/naics/).
†Reference numbers >50 and additional details on the literature search are available in the Appendix.
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- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Cutaneous anthrax associated with drum making using goat hides from West Africa—Connecticut, 2007. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2008;57:628–31.
- Fowler RA, Lapinsky SE, Hallett D, Detsky AS, Sibbald WJ, Slutsky AS, et al.; Toronto SARS Critical Care Group. Critically ill patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome. JAMA. 2003;290:367–73.
- Suarthana E, McFadden JD, Laney AS, Kreiss K, Anderson HA, Hunt DC, et al. Occupational distribution of persons with confirmed 2009 H1N1 influenza. J Occup Environ Med. 2010;52:1212–6.
- Cummings KJ, Choi MJ, Esswein EJ, de Perio MA, Harney JM, Chung WM, et al. Addressing infection prevention and control in the first U.S. community hospital to care for patients with Ebola virus disease: context for national recommendations and future strategies. Ann Intern Med. 2016;165:41–9.
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- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Outbreak of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) at a school - Hawaii, May 2009. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2010;58:1440–4.
- Chen TH, Kutty P, Lowe LE, Hunt EA, Blostein J, Espinoza R, et al. Measles outbreak associated with an international youth sporting event in the United States, 2007. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2010;29:794–800.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Measles outbreak associated with an arriving refugee - Los Angeles County, California, August-September 2011. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2012;61:385–9.
- Magill SS, Black SR, Wise ME, Kallen AJ, Lee SJ, Gardner T, et al. Investigation of an outbreak of 2009 pandemic influenza A virus (H1N1) infections among healthcare personnel in a Chicago hospital. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2011;32:611–5.
- Medrano BA, Salinas G, Sanchez C, Miramontes R, Restrepo BI, Haddad MB, et al. A missed tuberculosis diagnosis resulting in hospital transmission. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2014;35:534–7.
- Joyce MP, Kuhar D, Brooks JT. Notes from the field: occupationally acquired HIV infection among health care workers - United States, 1985-2013. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2015;63:1245–6.
- Chevalier MS, Chung W, Smith J, Weil LM, Hughes SM, Joyner SN, et al.; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Ebola virus disease cluster in the United States—Dallas County, Texas, 2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2014;63:1087–8.
- Yacisin K, Balter S, Fine A, Weiss D, Ackelsberg J, Prezant D, et al.; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Ebola virus disease in a humanitarian aid worker - New York City, October 2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2015;64:321–3.
- Anderson JA, Meissner JS, Ahuja SD, Shashkina E, O’Flaherty T, Proops DC. Confirming Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission from a cadaver to an embalmer using molecular epidemiology. Am J Infect Control. 2015;43:543–5.
- de Perio MA, Niemeier RT, Levine SJ, Gruszynski K, Gibbins JD. Campylobacter infection in poultry-processing workers, Virginia, USA, 2008-2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19:286–8.
- Roess AA, Levine RS, Barth L, Monroe BP, Carroll DS, Damon IK, et al. Sealpox virus in marine mammal rehabilitation facilities, North America, 2007-2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:2203–8.
- Hedican E, Miller B, Ziemer B, LeMaster P, Jawahir S, Leano F, et al. Salmonellosis outbreak due to chicken contact leading to a foodborne outbreak associated with infected delicatessen workers. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2010;7:995–7.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Norovirus outbreak associated with ill food-service workers—Michigan, January-February 2006. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2007;56:1212–6.
- Hofinger DM, Cardona L, Mertz GJ, Davis LE. Tularemic meningitis in the United States. Arch Neurol. 2009;66:523–7.
- Moraga-McHaley SA, Landen M, Krapfl H, Sewell CM. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis with Mycobacterium avium complex among spa workers. Int J Occup Environ Health. 2013;19:55–61.
- Cummings KC, McDowell A, Wheeler C, McNary J, Das R, Vugia DJ, et al. Point-source outbreak of coccidioidomycosis in construction workers. Epidemiol Infect. 2010;138:507–11.
- Wilken JA, Marquez P, Terashita D, McNary J, Windham G, Materna B; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Coccidioidomycosis among cast and crew members at an outdoor television filming event—California, 2012. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2014;63:321–4.
- Wilken JA, Sondermeyer G, Shusterman D, McNary J, Vugia DJ, McDowell A, et al. Coccidioidomycosis among workers constructing solar power farms, California, USA, 2011–2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21:1997–2005.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Notes from the field: histoplasmosis outbreak among day camp attendees—Nebraska, June 2012. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2012;21:747–8.
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- Murphree R, Warkentin JV, Dunn JR, Schaffner W, Jones TF. Elephant-to-human transmission of tuberculosis, 2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:366–71.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Salmonella serotype enteritidis infections among workers producing poultry vaccine—Maine, November-December 2006. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2007;56:877–9.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Laboratory-acquired vaccinia exposures and infections—United States, 2005-2007. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2008;57:401–4.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Laboratory-acquired vaccinia virus infection—Virginia, 2008. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2009;58:797–800.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Fatal laboratory-acquired infection with an attenuated Yersinia pestis Strain—Chicago, Illinois, 2009. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2011;60:201–5.
- McCollum AM, Austin C, Nawrocki J, Howland J, Pryde J, Vaid A, et al. Investigation of the first laboratory-acquired human cowpox virus infection in the United States. J Infect Dis. 2012;206:63–8.
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- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Notes from the field: malaria imported from West Africa by flight crews --- Florida and Pennsylvania, 2010. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2010;59:1412.
- Bolyard EA, Tablan OC, Williams WW, Pearson ML, Shapiro CN, Deitchmann SD; Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee. Guideline for infection control in healthcare personnel, 1998. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 1998;19:407–63.
- Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Immunization of health-care personnel: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recomm Rep. 2011;60(RR-7):1–45.
- Kambali S, Nantsupawat N, Lee M, Nugent K. A workplace tuberculosis case investigation in the presence of immigrant contacts from high prevalence countries. J Community Health. 2015;40:576–80.
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- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC guidance for state and local public health officials and school administrators for school (K–12) responses to influenza during the 2009–2010 school year [cited 2017 May 4]. https://www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/schools/schoolguidance.htm
- Piper K, Youk A, James AE III, Kumar S. Paid sick days and stay-at-home behavior for influenza. PLoS One. 2017;12:e0170698.
- Fennelly KP, Nardell EA. The relative efficacy of respirators and room ventilation in preventing occupational tuberculosis. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 1998;19:754–9.
- Jensen PA, Lambert LA, Iademarco MF, Ridzon R; CDC. Guidelines for preventing the transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in health-care settings, 2005. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2005;54(RR-17):1–141.
- Ballout RA, Diab B, Harb AC, Tarabay R, Khamassi S, Akl EA. Use of safety-engineered devices by healthcare workers for intravenous and/or phlebotomy procedures in healthcare settings: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Health Serv Res. 2016;16:458.
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- Hageman JC, Hazim C, Wilson K, Malpiedi P, Gupta N, Bennett S, et al. Infection prevention and control for Ebola in health care settings—West Africa and United States. MMWR Suppl. 2016;65:50–6.
- Verbeek JH, Ijaz S, Mischke C, Ruotsalainen JH, Mäkelä E, Neuvonen K, et al. Personal protective equipment for preventing highly infectious diseases due to exposure to contaminated body fluids in healthcare staff. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016;4:CD011621.
1Current affiliation: Taiwan Centers for Disease Control, Taipei, Taiwan, and Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.
2Current affiliation: Washington Family Medicine Residency Program, Washington Hospital System, Washington, Pennsylvania, USA.