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Geographic Designations

Use the preferred English spelling indicated in Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names (

Spell out names of states and US territories and possessions when they stand alone or follow a county name. Use postal abbreviations in references, addresses, or product identification.

SAS for Windows version 9.2 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA)

For Australian states, use abbreviations

NSW (for New South Wales)

QLD (for Queensland)

WA (for Western Australia)

Abbreviate US and UK as adjectives; write out as nouns. When using in a location or address (e.g., affiliations), use USA and UK.

US citizens, citizens of the United States

Use accent for Réunion Island, no accent for Reunion state (Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names).

United Kingdom:  For England, list only “City, UK.”  For other countries, list “City, Country, UK”

London, UK

Cardiff, Wales, UK

Glasgow, Scotland, UK

South Korea, not Korea, should be used for that country's name.

For manufacturer locations, abbreviate state/province for all countries.

SAS for Windows version 9.2 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA)

See References for a list of cities that can be used without the state or country name in reference lists.

Page created: February 04, 2010
Page updated: January 14, 2019
Page reviewed: January 14, 2019
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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