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Volume 10, Number 5—May 2004
Dispatch

Multidrug-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium Infection from Milk Contaminated after Pasteurization

Sonja J. Olsen*Comments to Author , Michelle Ying*, Meghan F. Davis*, Marshall P. Deasy†, Ben Holland*, Larry Iampietro†, C. Michael Baysinger‡, Frances Sassano§, Lewis D. Polk§, Betty Gormley¶, Mary Jane Hung#, Keith Pilot#, Maria Orsini#, Susan Van Duyne*, Shelley Rankin**, Carol Genese#, Eddy A. Bresnitz#, Joseph Smucker††, Maria Moll†, and Jeremy Sobel*
Author affiliations: *Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA; †Pennsylvania Department of Health, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, USA; ‡Montgomery County Department of Health, Norristown, Pennsylvania, USA; §Bucks County Department of Health, Doylestown, Pennsylvania, USA; ¶Gloucester County Health Department, Turnersville, New Jersey, USA; #New Jersey State Department of Health and Senior Services, Trenton, New Jersey, USA; **University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA; ††U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Washington, D.C., USA

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Table

Review of pasteurized milk outbreaks in the United States, 1960–2000

Date Location (ref) Pathogen Setting Total no. ill (confirmed) Mechanism of contamination
Nov 1966
Florida (8)
Shigella flexneri type 2
Community
97 (97)
After pasteurization
Jul–Aug 1975
Louisiana (9)
Salmonella Newport
Military base/community
49 (49)
Unknown
Sep–Oct 1976
New York (10)
Yersinia enterocolitica O:8
School
38 (38)
After pasteurization
Oct 1978
Arizona (11)
S. Typhimurium
Community
23 (23)
After pasteurization
Jun–Jul 1982
Tennessee, Arkansas, Mississippi (12)
Y. enterocolitica O:13, 18
Community
172 (172)
Unknown
Jun–Aug 1983
Massachusetts (13)
Listeria monocytogenes 4b; phage type 2425A
Community
49 (40)
Unknown
Apr 1984
Kentucky (14)
S. Typhimurium
Convent
16 (16)
Inadequate pasteurization
Mar–Apr 1985
Illinois (1)
S. Typhimurium
Community
>150,000 (>16,000)
After pasteurization
Mar–Apr 1986
Vermont (15)
Campylobacter jejuni O:2, 36
School
33 (8)
Inadequate pasteurization
Jul 1994
Illinois (2)
L. monocytogenes 1/2b
Picnic
45 (11)
After pasteurization
Oct 1995
Vermont, New Hampshire (3)
Y. enterocolitica O:8
Community
10 (10)
After pasteurization
Mar–Apr 2000 Pennsylvania, New Jersey S. Typhimurium, phage type 21, R-type AKSSuT Community 93 (93) After pasteurization

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References
  1. Ryan  CA, Nickels  MK, Hargrett-Bean  NT, Potter  ME, Endo  T, Mayer  L, Massive outbreak of antimicrobial-resistant salmonellosis traced to pasteurized milk. JAMA. 1987;258:326974. DOIPubMed
  2. Dalton  CB, Austin  CC, Sobel  J, Hayes  PS, Bibb  WF, Graves  LM, An outbreak of gastroenteritis and fever due to Listeria monocytogenes in milk. N Engl J Med. 1997;336:1005. DOIPubMed
  3. Ackers  ML, Schoenfeld  S, Markman  J, Smith  MG, Nicholson  MA, DeWitt  W, An outbreak of Yersinia enterocolitica O:8 infections associated with pasteurized milk. J Infect Dis. 2000;181:18347. DOIPubMed
  4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Standardized molecular subtyping of foodborne bacterial pathogens by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. CDC; 1998.
  5. Anderson  ES, Ward  LR, Saxe  MJ, de Sa  JD. Bacteriophage-typing designations of Salmonela Typhimurium. J Hyg (Lond). 1977;78:297300. DOIPubMed
  6. Glynn  MK, Bopp  C, Dewitt  W, Dabney  P, Mokhtar  M, Angulo  FJ. Emergence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium DT104 infections in the United States. N Engl J Med. 1998;338:13338. DOIPubMed
  7. Helms  M, Vastrup  P, Gerner-Smidt  P, Molbak  K. Excess mortality associated with antimicrobial drug-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002;8:4905.PubMed
  8. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Shigellosis outbreak—Florida. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1966;15:4412.
  9. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. A common-source outbreak of Salmonella newport—Louisiana. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1975;24:4134.
  10. Black  RE, Jackson  RJ, Tsai  T, Medvesky  M, Shayegani  M, Feeley  J, Epidemic Yersinia enterocolitica infection due to contaminated chocolate milk. N Engl J Med. 1978;298:769. DOIPubMed
  11. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Salmonella gastroenteritis associated with milk—Arizona. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1979;28:11720.
  12. Tacket  CO, Narain  JP, Sattin  R, Lofgren  JP, Konigsberg  C Jr, Rendtorff  RC, A multistate outbreak of infections caused by Yersinia enterocolitica transmitted by pasteurized milk. JAMA. 1984;251:4836. DOIPubMed
  13. Fleming  DW, Cochi  SL, MacDonald  KL, Brondum  J, Hayes  PS, Plikaytis  BD, Pasteurized milk as a vehicle of infection in an outbreak of listeriosis. N Engl J Med. 1985;312:4047. DOIPubMed
  14. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Salmonellosis from inadequately pasteurized milk—Kentucky. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1984;33:5056.PubMed
  15. Birkhead  G, Vogt  RL, Heun  E, Evelti  CM, Patton  CM. A multiple-strain outbreak of Campylobacter enteritis due to consumption of inadequately pasteurized milk. J Infect Dis. 1988;157:10957.PubMed

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