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Volume 10, Number 5—May 2004


Syndromic Surveillance in Public Health Practice, New York City

Richard Heffernan*, Farzad Mostashari*, Debjani Das*, Adam Karpati*, Martin Kulldorff†, and Don Weiss*Comments to Author 
Author affiliations: *New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, New York, New York, USA; and; †Harvard Medical School and Harvard Pilgrim Health Care, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

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Table 1

Syndrome coding and hierarchy

Syndrome Includes Excludes
Common cold Nasal drip, congestion, stuffiness Chest congestion, sore throat
Sepsis Sepsis, cardiac arrest, unresponsive, unconscious, dead on arrival
Respiratory Cough, shortness of breath, difficulty breathing, croup, dyspnea, bronchitis, pneumonia, hypoxia, upper respiratory illness, chest congestion Cold
Diarrhea Diarrhea, enteritis, gastroenteritis, stomach virus
Fever Fever, chills, flu, viral syndrome, body ache and pain, malaise Hay fever
Rash Vesicles, chicken pox, folliculitis, herpes, shingles Thrush, diaper and genital rash
Asthma Asthma, wheezing, reactive airway, chronic obstructive airway disease
Vomiting Vomiting, food poisoning

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