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Volume 10, Number 9—September 2004


Deaths due to Unknown Foodborne Agents

Paul D. Frenzen*Comments to Author 
Author affiliation: *U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C., USA

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Table 3

Estimated and reported annual deaths from enteric infections that cause gastroenteritis, United States

Cause (ICD-10 code)Estimated annual deathsaAverage annual reported deaths, 
1999–2000 (95% CI)b
Salmonella, nontyphoidal (A02.0–A02.9)58259.0 (44.9–76.1)
Norovirus (A08.1)3100.0 (0.0–3.7)
Campylobacter spp. (A04.5)1244.0 (1.1–10.2)
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (A04.3)910.0 (0.0–3.7)
Shigella spp. (A03.0–A03.9)7011.5 (6.2-19.7)
Cryptosporidium parvum (A07.2)6612.5 (6.9–21.0)
Rotavirus (A08.0)306.0 (2.2–13.1)
Vibrio parahemolyticus (A05.3)201.5 (0.2–5.6)
Brucella spp. (A023.0-A023.9)111.5 (0.2–5.6)
Giardia lamblia (A07.1)102.0 (0.2–7.2)
Clostridium perfringens (A05.2)74.5 (1.6–10.2)
Botulism, foodborne (A05.1)44.5 (1.6–10.2)
Salmonella typhi (A01.0)31.5 (0.2–5.6)
Yersinia enterocolitica (A04.6)30.5 (0.0–3.7)
Staphylococcus food poisoning (A05.0)21.5 (0.2–5.6)
Total1,333110.5 (89.9–131.3)

aEstimates from Mead et al. (1).
bDeaths with any mention of specified cause on the 1999–2000 Multiple Cause of Death files. Causes of death on the 1999–2000 files were coded by using ICD-10, which provides more detailed codes for enteric infections than ICD-9. The 95% confidence interval (CI) measures random variation in the number of deaths, which was assumed to follow a Poisson distribution for <100 deaths and a binomial distribution for >100 deaths.

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