Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link
Volume 11, Number 10—October 2005

Emerging Foodborne Trematodiasis

Jennifer Keiser*Comments to Author  and Jürg Utzinger*
Author affiliations: *Swiss Tropical Institute, Basel, Switzerland

Main Article

Table 1

Geographic distribution and population at risk for major foodborne trematode infections

Foodborne trematodes Species Geographic distribution Second intermediate hosts; habitats Population at risk (× 106)
Liver flukes Clonorchis sinensis China (except for Inner Mongolia, Ningxia, Qinghai, Tibet, Xinjiang), Republic of Korea, Taiwan, Vietnam* >100 species of freshwater fish; freshwater habitats with stagnant or slow-moving waters (ponds, river, aquaculture, swamps, rice fields) 601.0†
Opisthorchis felineus Kazakhstan, Russian Federation, Siberia, Ukraine‡ >35 species of freshwater fish; freshwater habitats with stagnant or slow-moving waters (ponds, river, aquaculture, swamps, rice fields) 12.5§
Opisthorchis viverrini Cambodia, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Thailand, Vietnam‡ 67.3¶
Fasciola hepatica, Fasciola gigantica Altiplano of Bolivia, Cuba, highlands of Ecuador and Peru, Nile delta of Egypt, northern Islamic Republic of Iran, Portugal, Spain‡ Watercress and other water plants (drinking water); irrigation channels, pastures, banks of rivers, ponds, pools 91.1#
Lung flukes Paragonimus spp. Southwestern Cameroon, China, Ecuador, eastern Nigeria, Peru, the Philippines, Republic of Korea** >50 species of freshwater crab and crayfish; freshwater habitats with stagnant or slow-moving water (ponds, aquaculture) 292.8††
Intestinal flukes Fasciolopsis buski Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Taiwan, Thailand‡‡ Water caltrop, water chestnut, water hyacinth, water bamboo, duckweed, water mimosa, water spinach; drainage systems of pig farms, freshwater habitats with stagnant or slow-moving waters Not known
Echinostoma spp. China, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Republic of Korea, Taiwan, Thailand‡‡ Molluscs, fish, snails and tadpoles; freshwater or brackish habitats with stagnant or slow-moving waters Not known
Heterophyes heterophyes China, Egypt (Nile delta), India, Indonesia, Islamic Republic of Iran, Philippines, Sudan, Taiwan, Tunisia, Turkey‡‡ Brackish water fish (mullets, perches, gobies); brackish water habitats Not known
Metagonimus yokogawai The Balkans, China, Indonesia, Islamic Republic of Iran, Israel, Japan, Republic of Korea, Spain, Taiwan‡‡ Freshwater (Cyprinid) fish; freshwater habitats Not known

*References 1 and 18.
†Obtained by adding population at risk in China (including Taiwan) (1), Vietnam (10 million; JY Chai, pers. comm.), and Republic of Korea (44% of 2005 population (17,19).
‡Reference 17.
§Obtained by adding 8% of 2005 population in Russian Federation, 1.3% in Kazakhstan, and 2% in Ukraine (17,19).
¶Obtained by adding 2005 population in the Lao People's Democratic Republic, population at risk in Vietnam (10 million; J.Y. Chai, pers. comm.), and 80% of 2005 population in Thailand (17,19).
#Obtained by adding 23% of 2005 population in Bolivia, 20.6% in Ecuador, 35.3% in Peru, 24.3% in Spain, 44.2% in Portugal, 50.7% in Egypt, 10.8% in the Islamic Republic of Iran, and total 2005 population in Cuba (17,19).
**References 4, 17, and 18.
††Obtained by adding 15.9% of 2005 population in China, 18.9% in Ecuador, 1.4% in Peru, and 14% in Republic of Korea (17,19). Population at risk in Cameroon estimated at 2.7 million (population of the South and Central province, known foci for paragonimiasis (20), estimated at 1.5 million in 1982 [,_Cameroon.htm]), which we standardized to 2005 (19). No estimate was provided for population at risk in eastern Nigeria.
‡‡Reference 4.

Main Article

  1. Lun  ZR, Gasser  RB, Lai  DH, Li  AX, Zhu  XQ, Yu  XB, Clonorchiasis: a key foodborne zoonosis in China. Lancet Infect Dis. 2005;5:3141. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Cross  JH. Changing patterns of some trematode infections in Asia. Arzneimittelforschung. 1984;34:12246.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Seo  BS. Socio-economic and cultural aspects of human trematode infections in Korea. Arzneimittelforschung. 1984;34:11168.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Fried  B, Graczyk  TK, Tamang  L. Food-borne intestinal trematodiasis in humans. Parasitol Res. 2004;93:15979. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Keiser  J, Utzinger  J. Chemotherapy for major food-borne trematodes: a review. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2004;5:171126. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Abdussalam  M, Käferstein  FK, Mott  KE. Food safety measures for the control of foodborne trematode infections. Food Contr. 1995;6:719. DOIGoogle Scholar
  7. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. Production, accessibility, marketing and consumption patterns of freshwater aquaculture products in Asia: a cross-country comparison. Rome: The Organization. 2001.
  8. Tidwell  J, Allan  GL. Fish as food: aquaculture's contribution. Ecological and economic impacts and contributions of fish farming and capture fisheries. EMBO Rep. 2001;2:95863. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Muir  J. Managing to harvest? Perspectives on the potential of aquaculture. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2005;360:191218. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. World agriculture: towards 2015/2030. Rome: The Organization; 2002.
  11. Keiser  J, Castro  MC, Maltese  MF, Bos  R, Tanner  M, Singer  BH, Effect of irrigation and large dams on the burden of malaria on a global and regional scale. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2005;72:392406.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Erlanger  TE, Keiser  J, Castro  MC, Bos  R, Singer  BH, Tanner  M, Effect of water resource development and management on lymphatic filariasis and estimates of populations at risk. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2005;73:52333.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Keiser  J, Maltese  MF, Erlanger  TE, Bos  R, Tanner  M, Singer  BH, Effect of irrigated rice agriculture on Japanese encephalitis, including challenges and opportunities for integrated vector management. Acta Trop. 2005;95:4057. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Saleha  AA. Liver fluke disease (fascioliasis): epidemiology, economic impact and public health significance. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 1991;22:3614.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Canete  R, Yong  M, Sanchez  J, Wong  L, Gutierrez  A. Population dynamics of intermediate snail hosts of Fasciola hepatica and some environmental factors in San Juan y Martinez municipality, Cuba. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2004;99:25762. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Mas-Coma  S. Human fascioliasis: epidemiological patterns in human endemic areas of South America, Africa and Asia. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2004;35(Suppl 1):111.
  17. World Health Organization. Control of foodborne trematode infections. Report of a WHO study group. Geneva: The Organization; 1995.
  18. Haswell-Elkins  M, Levri  E. Food-borne trematodes. In: Cook G, Zumla A, editors. Manson's tropical diseases. 21st ed. London: W.B. Saunders; 2003. p. 1471–86.
  19. Population Division, Department of Economics and Social Affaisr of the United Nations. World population prospects: the 2004 revision. New York: United Nations; 2004.
  20. Moyou-Somo  R, Kefie-Arrey  C, Dreyfuss  G, Dumas  M. An epidemiological study of pleuropulmonary paragonimiasis among pupils in the peri-urban zone of Kumba town, Meme Division, Cameroon. BMC Public Health. 2003;3:40. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Sornmani  S, Schelp  FP, Vivatanasesth  P, Pongpaew  P, Sritabutra  P, Supawan  V, An investigation of the health and nutritional status of the population in the Nam Pong Water Resource Development Project, northeast Thailand. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 1981;75:33546.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Kamiya  M, Ooi  HK. Current status of food-borne parasitic zoonoses in Japan. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 1991;22(Suppl):4853.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Chen  MG. Fasciola hepatica infection in China. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 1991;22:35660.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Subasinghe  RP. Epidemiological approach to aquatic animal health management: opportunities and challenges for developing countries to increase aquatic production through aquaculture. Prev Vet Med. 2005;67:11724. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Coates  D. Inland capture fishery statistics of Southeast Asia: current status and information needs. Bangkok: Asia-Pacific Fishery Comission, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; 2002.
  26. Esteban  JG, Gonzalez  C, Bargues  MD, Angles  R, Sanchez  C, Naquira  C, High fascioliasis infection in children linked to a man-made irrigation zone in Peru. Trop Med Int Health. 2002;7:33948. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Choi  DW. Clonorchis sinensis: life cycle, intermediate hosts, transmission to man and geographical distribution in Korea. Arzneimittelforschung. 1984;34:114551.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Kim  DC, Lee  OY, Jeong  EB. Epidemiological conditions of Metagonimus yokogawai infection in Hadong Gun, Gyeongsang Nam Do. Korean J Parasitol. 1979;17:519. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Kim  SS, Han  MH, Park  SG, Lim  HS, Hong  ST. A survey on the epidemiological factors of clonorchiasis in the Pohang industrial belt along the Hyungsan River, Kyongsangbuk-do. Korean J Parasitol. 1990;28:2139. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Lee  GS, Cho  IS, Lee  YH, Noh  HJ, Shin  DW, Lee  SG, Epidemiological study of clonorchiasis and metagonimiasis along the Geum-gang (River) in Okcheon-gun (county), Korea. Korean J Parasitol. 2002;40:916. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Harinasuta  C, Sornamani  S, Migasena  P, Vivatanasesth  P, Pongpaew  P, Intarakao  C, Socio-economic, health and nutritional status of the villagers in the Nong Wai irrigation area, Khon Kaen, northeast Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 1976;7:60121.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Upatham  ES, Brockelman  WY, Viyanant  V, Lee  P, Kaengraeng  R, Prayoonwiwat  B. Incidence of endemic Opisthorchis viverrini infection in a village in northeast Thailand. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1985;34:9036.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Tesana  S, Sithithaworn  P, Prasongwatana  J, Kaewkes  S, Pipitgool  V, Pientong  C. Influence of water current on the distribution of Opisthorchis viverrini infection in northeastern villages of Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 1991;22:938.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. De  NV, Murrell  KD. Cong le D, Cam PD, Chau le V, Toan ND, et al. The food-borne trematode zoonoses of Vietnam. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2003;34:12–34.
  35. Raymundo  LA, Flores  VM, Terashima  A, Samalvides  F, Miranda  E, Tantalean  M, Hyperendemicity of human fasciolosis in the Mantaro Valley, Peru: factors for infection with Fasciola hepatica. Rev Gastroenterol Peru. 2004;24:15864.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Cucherat  M, Boissel  JP, Leizorovicz  A, Haugh  MC. EasyMA: a program for the meta-analysis of clinical trials. Comput Methods Programs Biomed. 1997;53:18790. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. DerSimonian  R, Laird  N. Meta-analysis in clinical trials. Control Clin Trials. 1986;7:17788. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. de Silva  N, Brooker  S, Hotez  PJ, Montresor  A, Engels  D, Savioli  L. Soil-transmitted helminth infections: updating the global picture. Trends Parasitol. 2003;19:54751. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Utzinger  J, Keiser  J. Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis: common drugs for treatment and control. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2004;5:26385. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Naylor  RL, Goldburg  RJ, Primavera  JH, Kautsky  N, Beveridge  MC, Clay  J, Effect of aquaculture on world fish supplies. Nature. 2000;405:101724. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Murray  AG, Peeler  EJ. A framework for understanding the potential for emerging diseases in aquaculture. Prev Vet Med. 2005;67:22335. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Ooi  HK, Wang  WS, Tu  CY, Chang  HY, Chen  CI. Natural mass infection by heterophyid metacercariae in aquacultured Japanese eel in Taiwan. Dis Aquat Organ. 1999;35:316. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Nowak  BF, Dawson  D, Basson  L, Deveney  M, Powell  MD. Gill histopathology of wild marine fish in Tasmania: potential interactions with gill health of cultured Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. J Fish Dis. 2004;27:70917. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar

Main Article

Page created: February 22, 2012
Page updated: February 22, 2012
Page reviewed: February 22, 2012
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.