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Volume 11, Number 12—December 2005

Bushmeat Hunting, Deforestation, and Prediction of Zoonotic Disease

Nathan D. Wolfe*Comments to Author , Peter Daszak†, A. Marm Kilpatrick†, and Donald S. Burke*
Author affiliations: *Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA; †Consortium for Conservation Medicine, New York, New York, USA

Main Article


Some zoonotic pathogens that have emerged in the Cameroon–Congo Basin region, 1970–2005*

Pathogen or disease Reservoir species Outcome of transmission Risk behavior Confirmed or probable transmission routes
Body fluids Bites/
saliva Organs/tissues Feces/urine Vectors (indirect)
Arboviruses (dengue, yellow fever) Various Localized outbreaks Human presence in region for habitation, work or leisure X (5,19,
Ebola Unknown Localized epidemics, short timescale Hunting or wildlife necropsy X X X X (21)
Monkeypox Squirrels and others Localized epidemics (at least four transmission cycles recorded) X X (22)
HIV-1 and -2 Chimpanzee, sooty mangabe Repeated single infections or localized outbreaks, followed by national then global emergence Hunting & butchering nonhuman primates X X X (23)
Anthrax Ungulates Single infections or localized epidemics Butchering or eating carcasses X X X
Salmonellosis Range of nonhuman primates Single infections Keeping pets X (24)
Herpes B virus (did not emerge locally) Range of non-human primates Single infections Keeping pets X X X (25)
Cutaneous leishmaniasis, Loa loa Localized outbreaks Logging/road-building, ecotourism, research X X X
Simian foamy viruses Gorilla, mandarin, De Brazza’s guenon, other unknown spp. Exposure without replication, or replication in a single human Hunting nonhuman primates X X X X (26)
Chromomycosis Wood collection X X X

*Note that herpes B virus did not infect humans locally in the Cameroon-Congo basin.

Main Article

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