Volume 12, Number 1—January 2006
Cell-mediated Protection in Influenza Infection
|Epitope||HLA restriction||PR8 sequence||Conservation|
|NP 383–391||B*2705||SRYWAIRTR||3/3 identical|
|NP 418–426||B*3501||LPFDRTTIM||0/3 identical|
|NP 44–52||A*01||CTELKLSDY||2/3 identical (156 Y9Q)|
|NP 265–273||A*03||ILRGSVAHK||3/3 identical|
|NP 188–198||A*1101||TMVMELVRMIK||3/3 V7I mutation|
|NP 380–388||B*08||ELRSRYWAI||3/3 identical|
|NP 174–184||B*2705||RRSGAAGAAVK||2/3 identical (156 V10I)|
|M1 58–66||A*0201||GILGFVFTL||3/3 identical|
|M1 27–35||A*03||RLEDVFAGK||2/3 mutated (1203, 213 both R1K)|
|M1 13–21||A*1101||SIIPSGPLK||3/3 identical|
*All 3 isolates were compared to the mouse-adapted PR8 strain and differences are reported. Sequences obtained from the Influenza Sequence Database (55). NP, nucleoprotein; HLA, human leukocyte antigen.
- Murphy BR, Webster RG. Orthomyxoviruses. In: Fields BN, Knipe DM, Howley PM, Chanock RM, Melnick JL, Monath TP, et al., editors. Fields virology. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven Publishers; 1996. p. 1397–445.
- Allan W, Tabi Z, Cleary A, Doherty PC. Cellular events in the lymph node and lung of mice with influenza. Consequences of depleting CD4+ T cells. J Immunol. 1990;144:3980–6.
- Bender BS, Croghan T, Zhang L, Small PA Jr. Transgenic mice lacking class I major histocompatibility complex-restricted T cells have delayed viral clearance and increased mortality after influenza virus challenge. J Exp Med. 1992;175:1143–5.
- Hou S, Doherty PC, Zijlstra M, Jaenisch R, Katz JM. Delayed clearance of Sendai virus in mice lacking class I MHC-restricted CD8+ T cells. J Immunol. 1992;149:1319–25.
- Graham MB, Braciale TJ. Resistance to and recovery from lethal influenza virus infection in B lymphocyte-deficient mice. J Exp Med. 1997;186:2063–8.
- Epstein SL, Lo CY, Misplon JA, Bennink JR. Mechanism of protective immunity against influenza virus infection in mice without antibodies. J Immunol. 1998;160:322–7.
- Taylor PM, Askonas BA. Influenza nucleoprotein-specific cytotoxic T-cell clones are protective in vivo. Immunology. 1986;58:417–20.
- Andrew ME, Coupar BE. Efficacy of influenza haemagglutinin and nucleoprotein as protective antigens against influenza virus infection in mice. Scand J Immunol. 1988;28:81–5.
- Tite JP, Hughes-Jenkins C, O'Callaghan D, Dougan G, Russell SM, Gao XM, Anti-viral immunity induced by recombinant nucleoprotein of influenza A virus. II. Protection from influenza infection and mechanism of protection. Immunology. 1990;71:202–7.
- Webster RG, Kawaoka Y, Taylor J, Weinberg R, Paoletti E. Efficacy of nucleoprotein and haemagglutinin antigens expressed in fowlpox virus as vaccine for influenza in chickens. Vaccine. 1991;9:303–8.
- Moskophidis D, Kioussis D. Contribution of virus-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T cells to virus clearance or pathologic manifestations of influenza virus infection in a T cell receptor transgenic mouse model. J Exp Med. 1998;188:223–32.
- Lawrence CW, Braciale TJ. Activation, differentiation, and migration of naive virus-specific CD8+ T cells during pulmonary influenza virus infection. J Immunol. 2004;173:1209–18.
- Tripp RA, Sarawar SR, Doherty PC. Characteristics of the influenza virus-specific CD8+ T cell response in mice homozygous for disruption of the H-2lAb gene. J Immunol. 1995;155:2955–9.
- Cerwenka A, Morgan TM, Dutton RW. Naive, effector, and memory CD8 T cells in protection against pulmonary influenza virus infection: homing properties rather than initial frequencies are crucial. J Immunol. 1999;163:5535–43.
- Lawrence CW, Ream RM, Braciale TJ. Frequency, specificity, and sites of expansion of CD8+ T cells during primary pulmonary influenza virus infection. J Immunol. 2005;174:5332–40.
- Walker JA, Molloy SS, Thomas G, Sakaguchi T, Yoshida T, Chambers TM, Sequence specificity of furin, a proprotein-processing endoprotease, for the hemagglutinin of a virulent avian influenza virus. J Virol. 1994;68:1213–8.
- Walker JA, Sakaguchi T, Matsuda Y, Yoshida T, Kawaoka Y. Location and character of the cellular enzyme that cleaves the hemagglutinin of a virulent avian influenza virus. Virology. 1992;190:278–87.
- Prendergast JA, Helgason CD, Bleackley RC. A comparison of the flanking regions of the mouse cytotoxic cell proteinase genes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1992;1131:192–8.
- Topham DJ, Tripp RA, Doherty PC. CD8+ T cells clear influenza virus by perforin or Fas-dependent processes. J Immunol. 1997;159:5197–200.
- Townsend AR, Rothbard J, Gotch FM, Bahadur G, Wraith D, McMichael AJ. The epitopes of influenza nucleoprotein recognized by cytotoxic T lymphocytes can be defined with short synthetic peptides. Cell. 1986;44:959–68.
- Belz GT, Xie W, Altman JD, Doherty PC. A previously unrecognized H-2D(b)-restricted peptide prominent in the primary influenza A virus-specific CD8(+) T-cell response is much less apparent following secondary challenge. J Virol. 2000;74:3486–93.
- Chen W, Calvo PA, Malide D, Gibbs J, Schubert U, Bacik I, A novel influenza A virus mitochondrial protein that induces cell death. Nat Med. 2001;7:1306–12.
- Marshall DR, Turner SJ, Belz GT, Wingo S, Andreansky S, Sangster MY, Measuring the diaspora for virus-specific CD8+ T cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:6313–8.
- McMichael AJ, Michie CA, Gotch FM, Smith GL, Moss B. Recognition of influenza A virus nucleoprotein by human cytotoxic T lymphocytes. J Gen Virol. 1986;67:719–26.
- Crowe SR, Miller SC, Brown DM, Adams PS, Dutton RW, Harmsen AG, Uneven distribution of MHC class II epitopes within the influenza virus [corrected proof]. Vaccine. Epub 2005 Aug 15.
- Belz GT, Wodarz D, Diaz G, Nowak MA, Doherty PC. Compromised influenza virus-specific CD8(+)-T-cell memory in CD4(+)-T-cell-deficient mice. J Virol. 2002;76:12388–93.
- Riberdy JM, Christensen JP, Branum K, Doherty PC. Diminished primary and secondary influenza virus-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses in CD4-depleted Ig(-/-) mice. J Virol. 2000;74:9762–5.
- Brown DM, Roman E, Swain SL. CD4 T cell responses to influenza infection. Semin Immunol. 2004;16:171–7.
- Belz GT, Liu H, Andreansky S, Doherty PC, Stevenson PG. Absence of a functional defect in CD8+ T cells during primary murine gammaherpesvirus-68 infection of I-A(b-/-) mice. J Gen Virol. 2003;84:337–41.
- Diebold SS, Kaisho T, Hemmi H, Akira S, Reis e Sousa C. Innate antiviral responses by means of TLR7-mediated recognition of single-stranded RNA. Science. 2004;303:1529–31.
- Sarawar SR, Lee BJ, Reiter SK, Schoenberger SP. Stimulation via CD40 can substitute for CD4 T cell function in preventing reactivation of a latent herpesvirus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:6325–9.
- Cardin RD, Brooks JW, Sarawar SR, Doherty PC. Progressive loss of CD8+ T cell-mediated control of a gamma-herpesvirus in the absence of CD4+ T cells. J Exp Med. 1996;184:863–71.
- Brooks JW, Hamilton-Easton AM, Christensen JP, Cardin RD, Hardy CL, Doherty PC. Requirement for CD40 ligand, CD4(+) T cells, and B cells in an infectious mononucleosis-like syndrome. J Virol. 1999;73:9650–4.
- Sun JC, Bevan MJ. Defective CD8 T cell memory following acute infection without CD4 T cell help. Science. 2003;300:339–42.
- Christensen JP, Cardin RD, Branum KC, Doherty PC. CD4(+) T cell-mediated control of a gamma-herpesvirus in B cell-deficient mice is mediated by IFN-gamma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:5135–40.
- Appay V, Zaunders JJ, Papagno L, Sutton J, Jaramillo A, Waters A, Characterization of CD4(+) CTLs ex vivo. J Immunol. 2002;168:5954–8.
- Norris PJ, Moffett HF, Yang OO, Kaufmann DE, Clark MJ, Addo MM, Beyond help: direct effector functions of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-specific CD4(+) T cells. J Virol. 2004;78:8844–51.
- Staska LM, McGuire TC, Davies CJ, Lewin HA, Baszler TV. Neospora caninum–infected cattle develop parasite-specific CD4+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Infect Immun. 2003;71:3272–9.
- Roman E, Miller E, Harmsen A, Wiley J, von Andrian UH, Huston G, CD4 effector T cell subsets in the response to influenza: heterogeneity, migration, and function. J Exp Med. 2002;196:957–68.
- Walker WS, Castrucci MR, Sangster MY, Carson RT, Kawaoka Y. HEL-Flu: an influenza virus containing the hen egg lysozyme epitope recognized by CD4+ T cells from mice transgenic for an alphabeta TCR. J Immunol. 1997;159:2563–6.
- Chapman TJ, Castrucci MR, Padrick RC, Bradley LM, Topham DJ. Antigen-specific and non-specific CD4(+) T cell recruitment and proliferation during influenza infection. Virology. 2005;340:296–306.
- Cole GA, Katz JM, Hogg TL, Ryan KW, Portner A, Woodland DL. Analysis of the primary T-cell response to Sendai virus infection in C57BL/6 mice: CD4+ T-cell recognition is directed predominantly to the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase glycoprotein. J Virol. 1994;68:6863–70.
- Horimoto T, Kawaoka Y. Influenza: lessons from past pandemics, warnings from current incidents. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2005;3:591–600.
- Riberdy JM, Flynn KJ, Stech J, Webster RG, Altman JD, Doherty PC. Protection against a lethal avian influenza A virus in a mammalian system. J Virol. 1999;73:1453–9.
- Christensen JP, Doherty PC, Branum KC, Riberdy JM. Profound protection against respiratory challenge with a lethal H7N7 influenza A virus by increasing the magnitude of CD8(+) T-cell memory. J Virol. 2000;74:11690–6.
- O'Neill E, Krauss SL, Riberdy JM, Webster RG, Woodland DL. Heterologous protection against lethal A/HongKong/156/97 (H5N1) influenza virus infection in C57BL/6 mice. J Gen Virol. 2000;81:2689–96.
- Cox RJ, Brokstad KA, Ogra P. Influenza virus: immunity and vaccination strategies. Comparison of the immune response to inactivated and live, attenuated influenza vaccines. Scand J Immunol. 2004;59:1–15.
- The World Health Organization Global Influenza Project Surveillance Network. Evolution of H5N1 avian influenza viruses in Asia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11:1515–21.
- Jin H, Zhou H, Liu H, Chan W, Adhikary L, Mahmood K, Two residues in the hemagglutinin of A/Fujian/411/02-like influenza viruses are responsible for antigenic drift from A/Panama/2007/99. Virology. 2005;336:113–9.
- Ozaki H, Govorkova EA, Li C, Xiong X, Webster RG, Webby RJ. Generation of high-yielding influenza A viruses in African green monkey kidney (Vero) cells by reverse genetics. J Virol. 2004;78:1851–7.
- Cheuk E, Chamberlain JW. Strong memory CD8(+) T cell responses against immunodominant and three new subdominant HLA-B27-restricted influenza A CTL epitopes following secondary infection of HLA-B27 transgenic mice. Cell Immunol. 2005;234:110–23.
- Seo SH, Peiris M, Webster RG. Protective cross-reactive cellular immunity to lethal A/Goose/Guangdong/1/96-like H5N1 influenza virus is correlated with the proportion of pulmonary CD8(+) T cells expressing gamma interferon. J Virol. 2002;76:4886–90.
- Boon AC, de Mutsert G, Graus YM, Fouchier RA, Sintnicolaas K, Osterhaus AD, Sequence variation in a newly identified HLA-B35-restricted epitope in the influenza A virus nucleoprotein associated with escape from cytotoxic T lymphocytes. J Virol. 2002;76:2567–72.
- Berkhoff EG, de Wit E, Geelhoed-Mieras MM, Boon AC, Symons J, Fouchier RA, Functional constraints of influenza a virus epitopes limit escape from cytotoxic T lymphocytes. J Virol. 2005;79:11239–46.
- Macken C, Lu H, Goodman J, Boykin L. The value of a database in surveillance and vaccine selection. In: Osterhaus ADME, Cox N, Hampson AW, editors. Options for the control of influenza IV. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science; 2001. p. 103–6.
Page created: February 16, 2012
Page updated: February 16, 2012
Page reviewed: February 16, 2012
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.