Volume 12, Number 2—February 2006
Detecting Emerging Diseases in Farm Animals through Clinical Observations
|Emerging disease (etiology)||Species||Location, date||Detection keys at time of emergence||Ref.|
|Blue tongue (Reoviridae)||Sheep||Mediterranean basin, 1998–01||Disease normally occurring south of the Mediterranean basin||(10)|
|Border (Flaviviridae)||Sheep||France, 1994||Unusual death rates and clinical signs for the region: abortion, nervous signs, hydrocephalus||(11)|
|Bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (CD 18 gene mutation)||Holstein cattle||Different countries, 1980s||Unusual death rates in calves with recurrent infections||(12)|
|Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (prion)||Cattle||Great Britain, 1980||Unusual clinical and pathologic signs in the species: progressive neurologic disorders, gray matter vacuolation and scrapie associated fibrils||(8)|
|Complex vertebral malformation (SLC35A3 gene mutation)||Dairy cattle||Denmark, 2000||Unknown lethal congenital defect||(13)|
|Epizootic rabbit enteropathy (unidentified virus)||Rabbits||Europe, 1996||Unknown disease: serious enteritis, highly contagious, often fatal||(14)|
|Hendra virus disease (Paramyxovirus)||Horses, humans||Australia, Papua New Guinea, 1994||Sudden outbreak of acute respiratory syndrome in horses||(15)|
|Highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1 virus)||Poultry, humans||Southeast Asian countries, 2003–2004||Outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza in poultry||(16)|
|Nipah virus disease (Paramyxovirus)||Swine, humans||Malaysia and Singapore, 1998||Outbreak of unknown highly contagious disease in pigs: acute fever, respiratory signs, neurologic signs; encephalitis in humans||(17)|
|Porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome (suspected porcine circovirus 2)||Swine||United Kingdom, 1993||Unusual clinical signs: unusual skin lesions in patches and plaques||(18)|
|Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (Arteriviridae)||Swine||North America, 1987||Unusual association of: swine infertility, respiratory problems, abortion, and cyanotic ears||(19)|
|Post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (Suspected porcine circovirus 2)||Swine||Canada, 1990||Unusual association of: wasting, dyspnea, enlarged lymph nodes, diarrhea, pallor, and jaundice||(18)|
|Rabbit hemorrhagic disease (Caliciviridae)||Rabbits||China, 1984||Unusual high death rate and hemorrhage||(20)|
|West Nile fever (Flaviviridae)||Humans, crows||United States, 1999||Unusual cluster of human encephalitis, extensive death rate in crows, deaths of exotic birds in a zoo||(21)|
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