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Volume 12, Number 8—August 2006
Letter

Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs and Group A Streptococcal Infection

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To the Editor: Factor et al. recently reported the results of a population-based, case-control study regarding risk factors for pediatric invasive group A streptococcal (GAS) infection (1), noting that the "new" use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), defined as NSAID use <2 weeks before diagnosis, was associated with invasive GAS infection, whereas self-defined "regular" NSAID use was not. The control population consisted of nonhospitalized, age-matched children contacted by telephone (1). Although we endorse the authors' conclusion that, "…the measurements of new use and regular use [of NSAIDs] are too crude to clearly identify their role as a risk factor," a more detailed discussion of their findings and conclusions is warranted.

Because of their antiinflammatory effects, NSAIDs have been suspected of suppressing host immunity during infection, particularly GAS infection (2). However, determining a causal association between NSAID use and infectious diseases has been problematic, especially when using retrospective studies (3). The results of such observational studies often suffer from protopathic bias, in which drugs are applied to treat symptoms that are actually early manifestations of the outcome of interest (4). Consequently, rather than being a direct determinant (i.e., causative risk factor) for invasive GAS infection, NSAID use could mark the onset of disease symptoms (fever, localized pain, and inflammation). Therefore, because of protopathic bias, the study by Factor et al. had a substantial chance of identifying an association between NSAID use and invasive GAS infection a priori.

Neither the fact that patients in the study by Factor et al. received NSAIDs any time during the 2 weeks before the diagnosis of invasive GAS infection nor the finding that nonhospitalized children (controls) were unlikely to have received NSAIDs in the 2 weeks before their interview should be surprising. A more informative case-control study would have matched case-patients with similar-aged children who had febrile infections not caused by GAS infection; both groups of children would have been equally likely to have received analgesic and antipyretic medications. Furthermore, population-based data suggest that most patients with invasive GAS infection are hospitalized (5), so hospital-based controls, rather than population controls, might have provided a more appropriate comparison group.

Prospective studies have failed to define a causal link between NSAIDs and invasive GAS infections (3), though such studies were not specifically designed to investigate this relationship. To best test the hypothesis that NSAIDs increase the risk for invasive GAS infection, a randomized, prospective trial should be done. Such a trial is unlikely to take place, however, because of questionable ethics and because the sample necessary to detect a significant difference would be prohibitively large.

Although NSAIDs may neither alter the risk of developing an invasive GAS infection nor accelerate an established infection, these drugs can mollify the signs and symptoms of streptococcal infection, possibly delaying appropriate management and treatment (3). However, the potential adverse consequences of suppressing clinical indicators of disease severity (e.g., fever, pain, and inflammation) with NSAIDs apply to myriad infectious and inflammatory conditions, not just invasive streptococcal disease.

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David M. Aronoff*Comments to Author  and Zuber D. Mulla†

Author affiliations: *University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA; †University of Texas School of Public Health at Houston, El Paso, Texas, USA

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References

  1. Factor  SH, Levine  OS, Harrison  LH, Farley  MM, McGeer  A, Skoff  T, Risk factors for pediatric invasive group A streptococcal disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11:10626.PubMed
  2. Stevens  DL. Could nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) enhance the progression of bacterial infections to toxic shock syndrome? Clin Infect Dis. 1995;21:97780. DOIPubMed
  3. Aronoff  DM, Bloch  KC. Assessing the relationship between the use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs and necrotizing fasciitis caused by group A streptococcus. Medicine (Baltimore). 2003;82:22535. DOIPubMed
  4. Signorello  LB, McLaughlin  JK, Lipworth  L, Friis  S, Sorensen  HT, Blot  WJ. Confounding by indication in epidemiologic studies of commonly used analgesics. Am J Ther. 2002;9:199205. DOIPubMed
  5. Mulla  ZD, Leaverton  PE, Wiersma  ST. Invasive group A streptococcal infections in Florida. South Med J. 2003;96:96873. DOIPubMed

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Cite This Article

DOI: 10.3201/eid1208.051067

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Table of Contents – Volume 12, Number 8—August 2006

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David M. Aronoff, 6323 MSRB III, 1150 W Medical Center Dr, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-0642, USA

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Page created: December 09, 2011
Page updated: December 09, 2011
Page reviewed: December 09, 2011
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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