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Volume 12, Number 8—August 2006

West Nile Virus Epizootiology, Central Red River Valley, North Dakota and Minnesota, 2002–2005

Jeffrey A. Bell*, Christina M. Brewer*, Nathan J. Mickelson*, Gabriel W. Garman*, and Jefferson A. Vaughan*Comments to Author 
Author affiliations: *University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, North Dakota, USA

Main Article

Table 2

Epizootiology of West Nile virus (WNV) within the central Red River Valley of North Dakota and Minnesota during the first 4 years of its introduction into the region*

Year Primary transmission season† Thermal accumulations (degree-days)‡ Vector abundance§ Human cases in ND¶ Seasonal MIR# Passerine seroprevalence
2002, introductory 92 days
(11 Jun–10 Sep) 1,067 230 17 0.0
(n = 5,871) No birds tested
2003, epidemic 92 days
(11 Jun–10 Sep) 1,022 21 617 5.7
(n = 5,432) 17%
(n = 82)
2004, cold 51 days
(7 Jul–1 Sep) 371 9 20 0.0
(n = 1,245) 58%
(n = 52)
2005, equilibrium? 84 days
(20 Jun–11 Sep) 867 29 86 1.3
(n = 3,123) 57%
(n = 143)

*ND, North Dakota; MIR, minimum infection rate.
†Time between first and last appearances of host-seeking Culex tarsalis mosquitoes in Mosquito Magnet traps.
‡Based on developmental threshold temperature of 14.3°C for WNV growth in Cx. tarsalis (14).
§Average number of Cx. tarsalis mosquitoes captured per trap-night in Grand Forks, ND.
¶Data from North Dakota Department of Public Health (15).
#No. of WNV-infected Cx. tarsalis mosquitoes per 1,000.

Main Article

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The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.