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Volume 16, Number 12—December 2010


Surveillance of Wild Birds for Avian Influenza Virus

Bethany J. HoyeComments to Author , Vincent J. Munster, Hiroshi Nishiura, Marcel Klaassen, and Ron A.M. Fouchier
Author affiliations: Author affiliations: Netherlands Institute for Ecology, Nieuwersluis, the Netherlands (B.J. Hoye, M. Klaassen); Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam, the Netherlands (V.J. Munster, R.A.M. Fouchier); National Institute of Health, Hamilton, Montana, USA (V.J. Munster); University of Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands (H. Nishiura); Japan Science and Technology Agency, Saitama, Japan (H. Nishiura); Deakin University, Waurn Ponds, Victoria, Australia (M. Klaassen)

Main Article


Data requirements for assessment of major questions regarding avian influenza in wild birds*

Aim Type of question Geographic range Temporal range Frequency
Early detection of HPAIV Presence/absence Local/regional Period when birds present Approximately weekly (average infection duration)
Ecology and epidemiology Comparative prevalence Local to flyway, depending on the process in question 1 to many epidemic seasons (multiple times/year) Weekly to monthly (multiple times before, during, and after an epidemic)
Diversity and evolution Comparative prevalence (of viral strains) Flyway to global Decades (multiple times/year repeated for multiple years) Monthly to seasonally

*Larger-scale studies can be compiled over large geographic areas from relevant local surveys that are methodologically comparable and over long periods from relevant annual surveys that are likewise methodologically comparable. HPAIV, highly pathogenic avian influenza virus.

Main Article