Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link
Volume 16, Number 3—March 2010
Perspective

Potential for Tick-borne Bartonelloses

Emmanouil Angelakis, Sarah A. Billeter, Edward B. Breitschwerdt, Bruno B. Chomel, and Didier RaoultComments to Author 
Author affiliations: Université de la Méditerranée, Marseille, France (E. Angelakis, D. Raoult); North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA (S.A. Billeter, E.B. Breitschwerdt); University of California School of Veterinary Medicine, Davis, California, USA (B.B. Chomel)

Main Article

Table 1

Ticks in which Bartonella spp. DNA has been found*

Tick genus and species Prevalence of Bartonella spp. DNA in ticks, %/no. Identified Bartonella spp. Target gene Reference
Amblyomma americanum 0.43/466 individuals B. tamiae–like IGS (3)
Carios kelleyi 3.2/31 individuals Resembling B. henselae IGS (11)
Dermacentor occidentalis 8.3/12 pools Bartonella spp. gltA (12)
D. reticulatus 21.4/84 individuals B. henselae (99% homology) and B. quintana (90% homology) groEL (13)
D. variabilis 14.3/ 7 pools Bartonella spp. gltA (12)
Haemaphysalis flava 2.7/74 pools Bartonella spp. 16S rRNA (14)
H. longicornis 4.4/1,173 pools Bartonella spp.; 1 pool harbored B. rattimassiliensis (99.2%), 1 pool harbored B. tribocorum (98.3%) 16S rRNA (14)
H. longicornis 36/150 groups (60 individual fed adults, 30 pools of 2 unfed adults, and 60 pools of 5 nymphs) Bartonella spp. gltA (15)
Ixodes nipponensis 5.0/20 pools Bartonella spp. 16S rRNA (14)
I. pacificus 19.2 of 151 individuals B. henselae, B. quintana, B. washoensis, B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, and a Bartonella cattle strain gltA (16)
I. pacificus 11.6/224 pools Bartonella spp. gltA (12)
I. persulcatus 37.6/125 individuals B. henselae (99% homology) and B. quintana (90% homology) groEL (13)
I. persulcatus 44/50 individuals in 2002 and 38/50 individuals in 2003 B. henselae groEL (17)
I. persulcatus 33.3/3 pools Bartonella spp. 16S rRNA (14)
I. ricinus 1.48/271 individuals B. henselae groEL, pap31, ftsZ (18)
I. ricinus 4.9/102 individuals B. henselae gltA (19)
I. ricinus 60/121 individuals Bartonella spp 16S rRNA (20)
I. ricinus A pool/12 ticks Bartonella spp 16S rDNA (21)
I. ricinus 9.8/92 individuals Bartonella spp.; 1 adult harbored B. schoenbuchensis (96% homology) gltA (22)
I. ricinus 7.7/103 individuals B. capreoli ITS (23)
I. ricinus 1.2/327 individuals Bartonella spp 16S rRNA (24)
I. ricinus Resembling B. bacilliformis (25)†
I. scapularis 2.0/203 individuals B. schoenbuchensis gltA (26)
I. scapularis 34.5/107 individuals Unidentified Bartonella spp. 16S rRNA (27)
I. scapularis B. henselae 16S rRNA (28)
I. sinensis 16.3/86 individuals Bartonella spp. gltA (15)
I. spp. 42.3/26 pools Bartonella spp. 16S rRNA (17)
I. turdus 11.1/9 pools Bartonella spp.; 1 pool harbored B. doshiae (99.2% homology) 16S rRNA (14)
Rhipicephalus sanguineus 3.2/62 individuals B. henselae ribC (29)
Unidentified tick species Bartonella sp. IGS (30)

*IGS, intergenic spacer; gltA , citrate synthase gene; groEL, heat-shock protein gene; pap31, heme-binding protein gene; ftsZ , cell-division protein gene; ribC, riboflavin synthase gene.
Bartonella spp. ascertained by isolation.

Main Article

References
  1. Rolain  JM, Brouqui  P, Koehler  JE, Maguina  C, Dolan  MJ, Raoult  D. Recommendations for treatment of human infections caused by Bartonella species. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004;48:192133. DOIPubMed
  2. Billeter  SA, Levy  MG, Chomel  BB, Breitschwerdt  EB. Vector transmission of Bartonella species with emphasis on the potential for tick transmission. Med Vet Entomol. 2008;22:115. DOIPubMed
  3. Billeter  SA, Miller  MK, Breitschwerdt  EB, Levy  MG. Detection of two Bartonella tamiae–like sequences in Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) using 16S–23S intergenic spacer region–specific primers. J Med Entomol. 2008;45:1769. DOIPubMed
  4. Swanson  SJ, Neitzel  D, Reed  KD, Belongia  EA. Coinfections acquired from Ixodes ticks. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2006;19:70827. DOIPubMed
  5. Parola  P, Raoult  D. Ticks and tickborne bacterial diseases in humans: an emerging infectious threat. Clin Infect Dis. 2001;32:897928. DOIPubMed
  6. Inokuma  H. Vector and reservoir hosts of Anaplasmataceae. In: Rickettsial diseases. Infectious Diseases and Therapy Series. 2007;42:199–212.
  7. Maurin  M, Raoult  D. Q fever. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1999;12:51853.PubMed
  8. Hildenbrand  P, Craven  DE, Jones  R, Nemeskal  P. Lyme neuroborreliosis: manifestations of a rapidly emerging zoonosis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2009;30:107987. DOIPubMed
  9. Breitschwerdt  EB, Maggi  RG, Nicholson  WL, Cherry  NA, Woods  CW. Bartonella sp. bacteremia in patients with neurological and neurocognitive dysfunction. J Clin Microbiol. 2008;46:285661. DOIPubMed
  10. Houpikian  P, Raoult  D. Molecular phylogeny of the genus Bartonella: what is the current knowledge? FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2001;200:17. DOIPubMed
  11. Loftis  AD, Gill  JS, Schriefer  ME, Levin  ML, Eremeeva  ME, Gilchrist  MJ, Detection of Rickettsia, Borrelia, and Bartonella in Carios kelleyi (Acari: Argasidae). J Med Entomol. 2005;42:47380. DOIPubMed
  12. Chang  CC, Hayashidani  H, Pusterla  N, Kasten  RW, Madigan  JE, Chomel  BB. Investigation of Bartonella infection in ixodid ticks from California. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2002;25:22936. DOIPubMed
  13. Rar  VA, Fomenko  NV, Dobrotvorsky  AK, Livanova  NN, Rudakova  SA, Fedorov  EG, Tickborne pathogen detection, western Siberia, Russia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11:170815.PubMed
  14. Kim  CM, Kim  JY, Yi  YH, Lee  MJ, Cho  MR, Shah  DH, Detection of Bartonella species from ticks, mites and small mammals in Korea. J Vet Sci. 2005;6:32734.PubMed
  15. Sun  J, Liu  Q, Lu  L, Ding  G, Guo  J, Fu  G, Coinfection with four genera of bacteria (Borrelia, Bartonella, Anaplasma, and Ehrlichia) in Haemaphysalis longicornis and Ixodes sinensis ticks from China. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2008;8:7915. DOIPubMed
  16. Chang  CC, Chomel  BB, Kasten  RW, Romano  V, Tietze  N. Molecular evidence of Bartonella spp. in questing adult Ixodes pacificus ticks in California. J Clin Microbiol. 2001;39:12216. DOIPubMed
  17. Morozova  OV, Cabello  FC, Dobrotvorsky  AK. Semi-nested PCR detection of Bartonella henselae in Ixodes persulcatus ticks from western Siberia, Russia. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2004;4:3069. DOIPubMed
  18. Sanogo  YO, Zeaiter  Z, Caruso  G, Merola  F, Shpynov  S, Brouqui  P, Bartonella henselae in Ixodes ricinus ticks (Acari: Ixodida) removed from humans, Belluno Province, Italy. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003;9:32932.PubMed
  19. Podsiadly  E, Chmielewski  T, Sochon  E, Tylewska-Wierzbanowska  S. Bartonella henselae in Ixodes ricinus ticks removed from dogs. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2007;7:18992. DOIPubMed
  20. Schouls  LM, Van de Pol  I, Rijpkema  SGT, Schot  CS. Detection and identification of Ehrlichia, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, and Bartonella species in Dutch Ixodes ricinus ticks. J Clin Microbiol. 1999;37:221522.PubMed
  21. Schabereiter-Gurtner  C, Lubitz  W, Rolleke  S. Application of broad-range 16S rRNA PCR amplification and DGGE fingerprinting for detection of tick-infecting bacteria. J Microbiol Methods. 2003;52:25160. DOIPubMed
  22. Halos  L, Jamal  T, Maillard  R, Beugnet  F, Le Menach  A, Boulouis  HJ, Evidence of Bartonella sp. in questing adult and nymphal Ixodes ricinus ticks from France and co-infection with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Babesia sp. Vet Res. 2005;36:7987. DOIPubMed
  23. Bogumila  S, Adamska  M. Capreolus capreolus and Ixodes ricinus as a reservoir of Bartonella in northwestern Poland [in Polish]. Wiad Parazytol. 2005;51:13943.PubMed
  24. Hercík  K, Hásová  V, Janecek  J, Branny  P. Molecular evidence of Bartonella DNA in ixodid ticks in Czechia. Folia Microbiol (Praha). 2007;52:5039. DOIPubMed
  25. Kruszewska  D, Tylewska-Wierzbanowska  S. Unknown species of rickettsiae isolated from Ixodes riconus tick in Walcz. Rocz Akad Med Bialymst. 1996. 1996;41:129–135.
  26. Matsumoto  K, Berrada  ZL, Klinger  E, Goethert  HK, Telford  SR III. Molecular detection of Bartonella schoenbuchensis from ectoparasites of deer in Massachusetts. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2008;8:54954. DOIPubMed
  27. Adelson  ME, Rao  RV, Tilton  RC, Adelson  ME, Rao  RV, Tilton  RC, Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi, Bartonella spp., Babesia microti, and Anaplasma phagocytophila in Ixodes scapularis ticks collected in northern New Jersey. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:2799801. DOIPubMed
  28. Eskow  E, Rao  RV, Mordechai  E. Concurrent infection of the central nervous system by Borrelia burgdorferi and Bartonella henselae: evidence for a novel tick-borne disease complex. Arch Neurol. 2001;58:135763. DOIPubMed
  29. Wikswo  ME, Hu  R, Metzger  ME, Eremeeva  ME. Detection of Rickettsia rickettsii and Bartonella henselae in Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks from California. J Med Entomol. 2007;44:15862. DOIPubMed
  30. Parola  P, Shpynov  S, Montoya  M, Lopez  M, Houpikian  P, Zeaiter  Z, First molecular evidence of new Bartonella spp. in fleas and a tick from Peru. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2002;67:1356.PubMed
  31. Holden  K, Boothby  JT, Kasten  RW, Chomel  BB. Co-detection of Bartonella henselae, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Ixodes pacificus ticks from California, USA. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2006;6:99102. DOIPubMed
  32. Lucey  D, Dolan  MJ, Moss  CW, Garcia  M, Hollis  DG, Wegner  S, Relapsing illness due to Rochalimaea henselae in immunocompetent hosts: implication for therapy and new epidemiological associations. Clin Infect Dis. 1992;14:6838.PubMed
  33. Zangwill  KM, Hamilton  DH, Perkins  BA, Regnery  RL, Plikaytis  BD, Hadler  JL, Cat scratch disease in Connecticut. Epidemiology, risk factors, and evaluation of a new diagnostic test. N Engl J Med. 1993;329:813. DOIPubMed
  34. Podsiadly  E, Chmielewski  T, Tylewska-Wierzbanowska  S. Bartonella henselae and Borrelia burgdorferi infections of the central nervous system. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2003;990:4046. DOIPubMed
  35. Arnez  M, Luznik-Bufon  T, Avsic-Zupanc  T, Ruzic-Sabljic  E, Petrovec  M, Lotric-Furlan  S, Causes of febrile illnesses after a tick bite in Slovenian children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2003;22:107883. DOIPubMed
  36. Morozova  OV, Chernousova  NI, Morozov  IV. Detection of the Bartonella DNA by the method of nested PCR in patients after tick bites in Novosibirsk region [in Russian]. Mol Gen Mikrobiol Virusol. 2005;4:147.PubMed
  37. Breitschwerdt  EB, Maggi  RG, Duncan  AW, Nicholson  WL, Hegarty  BC, Woods  CW. Bartonella species in blood of immunocompetent persons with animal and arthropod contact. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13:93841.PubMed
  38. Cotté  V, Bonnet  S, Le-Rhun  D, Le Naour  E, Chauvin  A, Boulouis  HJ, Transmission of Bartonella henselae by Ixodes ricinus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:107480. DOIPubMed
  39. Angelakis  E, Pulcini  C, Waton  J, Imbert  P, Socolovschi  C, Edouard  S, Scalp eschar and neck lymphadenopathy caused by Bartonella henselae after tick bite. Clin Infect Dis. 2010 Jan 13; [Epub ahead of print].

Main Article

Page created: December 14, 2010
Page updated: December 14, 2010
Page reviewed: December 14, 2010
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
file_external