Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link
Volume 16, Number 7—July 2010
Letter

Endocarditis Caused by Actinobaculum schaalii, Austria

Martin Hoenigl, Eva Leitner, Thomas Valentin, Gernot Zarfel, Helmut J.F. Salzer, Robert Krause, and Andrea J. GrisoldComments to Author 
Author affiliations: Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria

Main Article

Table

Comparison of isolated Actinobaculum schaalii with related human pathogens reported in the literature

Characteristic Isolate that caused endocarditis
Reaction of (reference)*
A. schaalii (1,2) Actinobaculum massiliae (3) Actinobaculum urinale (4) Arcanobacterium pyogenes Actinomyces turicensis (1,2)
A. schaalii†
Catalase reaction
β-hemolysis on sheep blood agar –/w‡ w + w
Nitrate reduction
Pyrazinamidase V +
Pyrrolidonyl arylamidase + + +
Alkaline phosphatase + –§ V
β-glucuroniadase + +
β-galactosidase +
α-glucosidase + + + + +
N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase V
Esculin hydrolysis –§
Urease activity +
Gelatin hydrolysis





+

Acid from
Glucose V + + + +
Ribose + + + + + +
Xylose + V + + +
Mannitol
Maltose + + + + + V
Lactose +
Sucrose + V + V +
Glycogen + V

*API Coryne system (bioMérieux, Craponne, France) profile for our isolate was compared with those described in the references (Actinobaculum schaalii [14 strains], A. massiliae [1 strain], A. urinale [1 strain], A. turicensis [43 strains]) and those in the manufacturer´s database for Arcanobacterium pyogenes. +, >90% of strains positive; –, >90% strains negative; V, variable; w, weak.
†In API Coryne, the strain gave the profile number 4110621 (unacceptable profile because of lack of specificity).
A. schaalii was described as nonhemolytic for 5 patients (1) and as showing weak β-hemolysis only after 2–5 d in 9 cases (2).
§Reported as positive for 1 of 14 strains.

Main Article

References
  1. Lawson  PA, Falsen  E, Akervall  E, Vandamme  P, Collins  MD. Characterization of some Actinomyces-like isolates from human clinical specimens: reclassification of Actinomyces suis (Soltys and Spratling) as Actinobaculum suis comb. nov. and description of Actinobaculum schaalii sp. nov. Int J Syst Bacteriol. 1997;47:899903. DOIPubMed
  2. Reinhard  M, Prag  J, Kemp  M, Andresen  K, Klemmensen  B, Hojlyng  N. Ten cases of Actinobaculum schaalii infection: clinical relevance, bacterial identification, and antibiotic susceptibility. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:53058. DOIPubMed
  3. Greub  G, Raoult  D. "Actinobaculum massiliae," a new species causing chronic urinary tract infection. [PubMed DOI]. J Clin Microbiol. 2002;40:393841. DOIPubMed
  4. Hall  V, Collins  MD, Hutson  RA, Falsen  E, Inganas  E, Duerden  BI. Actinobaculum urinale sp. nov., from human urine. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2003;53:67982. DOIPubMed
  5. Li  JS, Sexton  DJ, Mich  N, Nettles  R, Fowler  VG Jr, Ryan  T. Proposed modifications to the Duke criteria for the diagnosis of infective endocarditis. [PubMed DOI]. Clin Infect Dis. 2000;30:6338. DOIPubMed
  6. Waghorn  DJ. Actinobaculum massiliae: a new cause of superficial skin infection. J Infect. 2004;48:2767. DOIPubMed
  7. Bank  S, Jensen  A, Hansen  TM, Soby  KM, Prag  J. Actinobaculum schaalii, a common uropathogen in elderly patients, Denmark. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16:7680. DOIPubMed
  8. Nielsen  HL, Soby  KM, Christensen  JJ, Prag  J. Actinobaculum schaalii: a common cause of urinary tract infection in the elderly population. Bacteriological and clinical characteristics. Scand J Infect Dis. 2010;42:437. DOIPubMed
  9. Haller  P, Bruderer  T, Schaeren  S, Laifer  G, Frei  R, Battegay  M. Vertebral osteomyelitis caused by Actinobaculum schaalii: a difficult-to-diagnose and potentially invasive uropathogen. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2007;26:66770. DOIPubMed
  10. Plamondon  M, Martinez  G, Raynal  L, Touchette  M, Valiquette  L. A fatal case of Arcanobacterium pyogenes endocarditis in a man with no identified animal contact: case report and review of the literature. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2007;26:6636. DOIPubMed

Main Article

Page created: March 02, 2011
Page updated: March 02, 2011
Page reviewed: March 02, 2011
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
file_external