Volume 17, Number 12—December 2011
Knowledge of Avian Influenza (H5N1) among Poultry Workers, Hong Kong, China
|Virus can infect|
|Wild birds? [Y] / Live poultry [Y] / Domestic birds? [Y]||65.4/60.1/44.8|
|Humans? [Y] / Other animals? [Y]||50.0/17.0|
|Virus can be transmitted from 1 place to another on|
|Bird feces? [Y] / Poultry cages? [Y] / Bird feed? [Y] / Clothing and shoes? [Y]||82.7/26.8/16.9/11.9|
|Humans can be infected by|
|Eating behavior: eating poultry cooked well done? [N] / Eating runny eggs? [Y]||69.1/14.0|
|Infected bird contact: bird feces? [Y] / Breathing near birds? [Y] / Swimming with birds? [Y]||59.7/22.1/19.4|
|Occupational risks: slaughtering poultry? [Y] / Defeathering poultry? [Y]||29.1/14.9|
|Symptoms of infection in humans|
|Dermatologic: Hair loss? [N] / Rash? [N]||99.4/98.2|
|Influenza-like: Fever? [Y] / Cough? [Y] / Muscle pain? [Y] / Runny nose? [Y]||89.8/67.1/67.1/54.5|
|Respiratory: Difficulty in breathing? [Y] / Crackling breathing sounds? [Y]||59.2/18.8|
|Other: Vomiting? [Y] / Diarrhea? [Y] / Nose bleeding? [Y]||25.0/14.3/2.9|
|There have been reported human cases|
|Somewhere? [Y] / Asia? [Y] / People’s Republic of China? [Y] / Hong Kong? [Y]||96.8/91.1/78.2/72.6|
|100% effective, commercially available vaccines exists|
|For birds? [N] / For humans? [N]||80.2/67.2|
|Duration virus can survive outside body|
|<6 h / 6h– 24h / several days / [>1 wk]||29.0/22.7/18.0/30.3|
|Mortality rate for humans|
|Almost everyone survives / <50% / [50%–89% die] / >90% / don’t know||57.9/26.3/13.5/1.2/1.2|
|Overall knowledge score, range 0–36, mean, SD||6.7, 6.43|
|Knowledge score multivariable linear regression model, β (95% CI), p value‡§|
|Educational level, primary or less = referent, F1–3, >F4||0.97 (0.07–1.87), 0.035|
|Household monthly income >20,000 Hong Kong dollars||1.61 (0.09–3.13), 0.038|
|Received prevention information from the Internet||4.35 (2.58–6.13), <0.0001|
|Received prevention information from other sources¶||3.86 (1.10–6.62), 0.006|
|In the past month, how frequently did you? Almost always / Sometimes? / Never?|
|Handle live chickens with bare hands||37.5/27.5/35.0|
|Handle dead chickens with bare hands||10.3/27.4/62.3|
|Wear eye protection when handling chickens||7.3/22.3/70.4|
|Wear face mask when handling chickens||25.3/35.2/39.5|
|Wear PPE (e.g., apron, mask) when handling chickens||51.2/22.4/26.4|
|Sterilize your clothes||52.9/31.8/15.3|
|Wash hands with soap after killing chickens||65.2/24.6/10.2|
|Overall preventive practice score, mean ± SD (range)#||8.16 ± 3.26 (0–14)|
|Practice score multivariable linear regression model, β (95% CI), p value‡**|
|>10 y working in the poultry industry; <10 y is referent||1.45 (0.39–2.51), 0.010|
|Retail shop worker; wholesale is referent||1.11(0.08–2.14), 0.034|
|Below median perceived barriers score; above median is referent||1.44 (0.43–2.46), 0.006|
*Values are % responding correctly unless otherwise indicated. Y, yes; N, no; PPE, personal protection equipment; CI, confidence interval.
†Correct answers are indicated in [brackets].
‡Variance inflation factors (VIF) diagnostics indicated no evidence of colinearity (all VIF <1.2) among variables in final models. Model fit analysis showed that standardized residuals of models were normally distributed and not associated with standardized predicted values.
§Final model constant for knowledge score, α (95% CI) 13.70 (11.8–15.6). The following candidate covariates had the following β coefficients and p values before removal from knowledge score model: age, β = 0.25, p = 0.57; <10 years in poultry industry, β = 1.08, p = 0.20; newspaper information source, β = 0.79, p = 0.284; health workers information source, β = −1.06, p = 0.441; poster information source, β = −0.04, p = 0.650.
¶Other health information sources included health talks, seminars, school, radio, flyers, and other poultry workers.
#Scored 2 = always, 1 = sometimes, 0 = never for computing summative score. Items 1 and 2 about chickens are reverse coded.
**Final model constant for practice score, α (95% CI) 6.18 (5.08–7.29). The following candidate covariates had the following β coefficients and p values before removal from practice score model: monthly income >20,000 Hong Kong dollars, β = −0.036, p = 0.956; above median avian influenza (H5N1) susceptibility score, β = 0.171, p = 0.797; above median avian influenza (H5N1) perceived severity score, β = −0.965, p = 0.143.
Medline reports the first author should be "Olsen SJ" not "Olsen S" in reference 10 "Olsen, Laosiritaworn, Pattanasin, Prapasiri, Dowel, 2005".
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
- Page created: December 01, 2011
- Page last updated: December 01, 2011
- Page last reviewed: December 01, 2011
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,
National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID)
Office of the Director (OD)