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Volume 17, Number 3—March 2011


Multidrug-Resistant Genotypes of Plasmodium falciparum, Myanmar

Zhaoqing Yang1, Chaoqun Li1, Miao Miao, Zaixing Zhang, Xiaodong Sun, Hao Meng, Jie Li, Qi Fan, and Guiyun YanComments to Author 
Author affiliations: Author affiliations: Kunming Medical University, Yunnan, People’s Republic of China (Z. Yang, C. Li, J. Li); Yunnan Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Pu’er, Yunnan, (Z. Zhang, X. Sun); The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, USA (M. Miao, H. Meng, L. Cui); Dalian Institute of Biotechnology, Dalian, Liaoning, People’s Republic of China (Q. Fan)

Main Article

Table 1

Prevalence of point mutation haplotypes in pfdhfr and pfdhps in clinical samples from Kachin State, northeast Myanmar, 2007–2009*

Gene Haplotype Codon† Haplotype prevalence,‡ %
2007, n = 41 2008, n = 40 2009, n = 36
Pfdhfr (51, 59, 108, 164)
Wild-type NCSI 2.4
Double mutations NRNI 9.8 5.0
Triple mutations NRNL 31.7a 25.0b 36.1a
IRNI 14.6a 7.5b 16.7a
Quadruple mutations
Pfdhps (436, 437, 540, 581) Wild-type SAKA 2.4 2.8
Single mutation SGKA 2.5 2.8
Double mutations SGEA 9.8 2.5
SGNA 2.4
Triple mutations SGEG 26.8a 35.0b 19.4c
SGNG 2.4 2.5
AGEA 48.8a 45.0a 52.8a
AGNA 7.3 8.3
Quadruple mutations AGEG 10.0 11.1
AGNG 2.5 2.8

*Pfdhfr, Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase; Pfdhps, P. falciparum dihydropoteroate synthase; –, no such haplotype detected.
†Codons in boldface indicate mutated amino acids.
‡χ2 test was performed with all data points of the 2 genes, which showed that overall haplotype prevalence differed significantly between the years (χ2 test, p<0.0001, χ2 = 76.49, df = 28). Major dhfr and dhps haplotypes were individually compared. For each haplotype (in the same row), the labeling by different letters denotes significant difference between the years (χ2 test, p<0.05).

Main Article

1These authors contributed equally to this article.