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Volume 17, Number 7—July 2011


Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and Hajj Pilgrims Who Received Predeparture Vaccination, Egypt

Amr Kandeel, Michael DemingComments to Author , Eman Abdel Kereem, Samir El-Refay, Salma Afifi, Mohammed Abukela, Kenneth Earhart, Nasr El-Sayed, and Hatem El-Gabaly
Author affiliations: Author affiliations: Ministry of Health, Cairo, Egypt (A. Kandeel, E. Abdul Kereem, S. El-Refay, M. Abukela, N. El-Sayed, H. El-Gabaly); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA (M. Deming); US Naval Medical Research Unit No. 3, Cairo, Egypt (S. Afifi, K. Earhart)

Main Article


Demographic characteristics, vaccination history, and influenza A infection prevalence among 551 pilgrims returning from the Hajj, Egypt, 2009

Characteristic No. pilgrims (weighted %)
Age group, y
<30 11 (2.2)
30–39 66 (12.4)
40–49 141 (23.9)
50–59 219 (40.2)
60–69 114 (21.2)
>70 0
<12* 1 (0.3)
1 (0.1)
M 311 (57.8)
240 (42.2)
Area of residence†
Coastal Egypt 12 (3.1)
Lower Egypt 298 (51.0)
Cairo metropolitan area 232 (43.8)
Upper Egypt
9 (2.1)
Verbal history of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 vaccination
Yes 542 (98.1)
9 (1.9)
Pilgrims infected with influenza A virus, by subtype‡
Seasonal (H1N1) 0
Seasonal (H3N2) 6 (1.0)
Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 0

*Outside the age limits recommended for Hajj pilgrims by the Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia, and enforced by Egypt’s Ministry of Health.
†The proportion of the national population living in these 4 areas according to the 2006 census was 11.3%, 34.3%, 19.4%, and 34.9%, respectively (11). The areas were formed by grouping Egypt’s governorates as follows: Coastal Egypt: Alexandria, Damietta, Ismailia, Matrouh, North Sinai, Port-Said, Suez, Red Sea; Lower Egypt: Behera, Dakahlia, Gharbia, Kafr-ElSheikh, Menoufia, Sharkia; Cairo metropolitan area: Cairo, Giza, Kalyoubia; Upper Egypt: Aswan, Asyout, Beni-Suef, ElWadi ElGidid, Fayoum, Helwan, Luxor City, Menia, Qena, South Sinai, Suhag, and 6th October.
‡By real-time reverse transcription PCR testing.

Main Article