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Volume 19, Number 1—January 2013


Puumala Virus Infections Associated with Cardiovascular Causes of Death

Anne-Marie Connolly-Andersen, Kristin Ahlm, Clas AhlmComments to Author , and Jonas Klingström
Author affiliations: Author affiliations: Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden (A.-M. Connolly-Andersen, K. Ahlm, C. Ahlm); Swedish Institute for Communicable Disease Control, Solna, Sweden (J. Klingström); Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden (J. Klingström)

Main Article


Characteristics of patients with diagnoses of HFRS, Sweden, 1997–2009*

No. patients
No. (%) patients by sex

No. (%) patients by age group, y
Median age†
Age range
Interquartile range
HFRS 5,844 2,349 (40.2) 3,495 (59.8) 52 2–95 39–62
COD 238 75 (31.5) 163 (68.5) 71‡ 18–94 62–78
HFRS, no PIN 59§ 21 (37.5) 35 (62.5) 45‡¶ 10–75 28–54

*HFRS, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome; COD, cause of death; PIN, personal identification number. Data from the HFRS database (Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control) were merged with data from the Cause of Death Register, National Board of Health and Welfare, identifying persons by PINs culminating in the cause of death (COD) cohort.
†The age in years of the patients at HFRS diagnosis according to the HFRS database.
‡Information regarding the age of 6 patients was missing.
§There was a significant difference in ages of the persons in the COD cohort and entire HFRS cohort, and between those patients lacking PIN and the entire HFRS cohort (p<0.001 and p = 0.001, respectively, independent samples, Mann-Whitney U-test).
¶Information regarding the sex of 3 patients was missing.
#The ages of persons in the “HFRS, no PIN” group were significantly younger than those in the COD cohort (p<0.001, independent samples, Mann-Whitney U-test).

Main Article