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Volume 19, Number 8—August 2013
Research

Duration of Immunity to Norovirus Gastroenteritis

Kirsten Simmons, Manoj Gambhir, Juan Leon, and Ben LopmanComments to Author 
Author affiliations: Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA (K. Simmons, J. Leon, B. Lopman); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta (K. Simmons, B. Lopman); Imperial College London, London, UK (M. Gambhir)

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Table 1

Summary of literature review of Norwalk virus volunteer challenge studies*

Study All
Secretor positive
Secretor negative
Strain
No. challenged No. (%) infected No. (%) AGE No. challenged No. (%) infected No. (%) AGE No. challenged No. (%) infected
Dolin 1971 (10) 12 9 (75) SM
Wyatt 1974 (11)† 23 16 (70) NV, MC, HI
Parrino 1977 (8)† 12 6 (50) NV
Johnson 1990 (17)† 42 31 (74) 25 (60) NV
Graham 1994 (12) 50 41 (82) 34 (68) NV
Lindesmith 2003 (18) 77 34 (44) 21 (27) 55 35 (64) 21 (38) 21 0 NV
Lindesmith 2005 (19) 15 9 (60) 7 (47) 12 8 (67) 3 1 (33) SM
Atmar 2008 (20) 21 16 (76) 11 (52) 21 16 (76) 11 (52) NV
Leon 2011 (21)‡ 15 7 (47) 5 (33) 15 7 (47) 5 (33) NV
Atmar 2011 (14)‡ 41 34 (83) 29 (71) 41 34 (83) 29 (71) NV
Seitz 2011 (22) 13 10 (77) 10 (77) 13 10 (77) 10 (77) 1 (5.6) NV
Frenck 2012 (23) 40 17 (42) 12 (30) 23 16 (70) 12 (52.1) 17 GII.4

*AGE, acute gastroenteritis; SM, Snow Mountain virus; NV, Norwalk virus; MC, Montgomery County virus; HI, Hawaii virus; GII.4, genogroup 2 type 4.
†Only includes initial challenge, not subsequent re-challenge.
‡Only includes placebo or control group.

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