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Volume 20, Number 2—February 2014
Letter

Injectional Anthrax in Heroin Users, Europe, 2000–2012

Matthias Hanczaruk, Udo Reischl, Thomas Holzmann, Dimitrios Frangoulidis, David M. Wagner, Paul S. Keim, Markus H. Antwerpen, Hermann Meyer, and Gregor GrassComments to Author 
Author affiliations: Bundeswehr Institute of Microbiology, Munich, Germany (M. Hanczaruk, D. Frangoulidis, M.H. Antwerpen, H. Meyer, G. Grass); University Hospital Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany (U. Reischl, T. Holzmann); Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, Arizona, USA (D. Wagner, P.S. Keim)

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Figure

Diagram of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assays used for bioforensic genotyping of heroin-associated Bacillus anthracis strains. Shown are the results of PCR-based SNP assays performed to elucidate the phylogenetic position of strains. Indicated at the top of the column is the whole strain pool of B. anthracis genotype A.Br. 008/011; the vertical black line indicates the assays in a direction of revealing increasing proximity to the heroin-associated strains. SNPs common to those of some

Figure. . Diagram of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assays used for bioforensic genotyping of heroin-associated Bacillus anthracis strains. Shown are the results of PCR-based SNP assays performed to elucidate the phylogenetic position of strains. Indicated at the top of the column is the whole strain pool of B. anthracis genotype A.Br. 008/011; the vertical black line indicates the assays in a direction of revealing increasing proximity to the heroin-associated strains. SNPs common to those of some strains from Turkey (2) are shown in light gray, and SNPs unique for the heroin-associated strains (2), including the isolate of 2000 from Norway, are depicted in dark gray (SNP designations and alleles are indicated).

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References
  1. Health Protection Scotland. An outbreak of anthrax among drug users in Scotland, December 2009 to December 2010. A report on behalf of the national Anthrax Outbreak Control Team. 2011 [cited 2013 Aug 20]. http://www.documents.hps.scot.nhs.uk/giz/anthrax-outbreak/anthrax-outbreak-report-2011-12.pdf
  2. Price  EP, Seymour  ML, Sarovich  DS, Latham  J, Wolken  SR, Mason  J, The molecular epidemiologic investigation of an anthrax outbreak in European heroin users. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18:130713. DOIPubMed
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  8. Antwerpen  MH, Zimmermann  P, Bewley  K, Frangoulidis  D, Meyer  H. Real-time PCR system targeting a chromosomal marker specific for Bacillus anthracis. Mol Cell Probes. 2008;22:3135. DOIPubMed
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