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Volume 20, Number 2—February 2014
Dispatch

Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Greece

Anna PapaComments to Author , Persefoni Sidira, Victor Larichev, Ludmila Gavrilova, Ksenia Kuzmina, Mehrdad Mousavi-Jazi, Ali Mirazimi, Ute Ströher, and Stuart Nichol
Author affiliations: Aristotle University of Thessaloniki School of Medicine, Thessaloniki, Greece (A. Papa, P. Sidira); D.I. Ivanovsky Institute of Virology, Moscow, Russian Federation (V. Larichev, L. Gavrilova, K. Kuzmina); Swedish Institute for Communicable Disease Control, Stockholm, Sweden (M. Mousavi-Jazi, A. Mirazimi); National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala, Sweden (A. Mirazimi); Linköpings University Institute of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping, Sweden (A. Mirazimi); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA (U. Ströher, S. Nichol)

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Table

Results of ELISA and IFA testing of 118 serum samples initially positive for CCHFV by ELISA, Greece*

Result No. (%) samples
Initial ELISA† CDC ELISA‡ Ivanovsky Institute ELISA§ IFA¶
High-positive 76 (64.4) 61 (51.7) 73 (61.8) 78 (66.1)
Positive 29 (24.6) 43 (36.4) 30 (25.4) 26 (22.0)
Low-positive 13 (11.0) 13 (11.0) 13 (11.0) 13 (11.0)
Negative NA 1 (0.8) 2 (1.7) 1 (0.8)

*IFA, immunofluorescence assay; CCHFV, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus; CDC, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; NA, not applicable.
†Samples were initially collected and tested for IgG by ELISA (Vektor-Best, Novosibirsk, Russia) as part of 3 previous seroprevalence studies (911).
‡CDC, Atlanta, Georgia, USA (13).
§Ivanovsky Institute of Virology, Moscow, Russia (12).
¶CCHFV Mosaic 2; Euroimmun Medizinische Labordiagnostika AG, Lübeck, Germany.

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References
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  2. Christova  I, Di Caro  A, Papa  A, Castilletti  C, Andonova  L, Kalvatchev  N, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, southwestern Bulgaria. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:9835. DOIPubMed
  3. Duh  D, Saksida  A, Petrovec  M, Ahmeti  S, Dedushaj  I, Panning  M, Viral load as predictor of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever outcome. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13:176972. DOIPubMed
  4. Papa  A, Bino  S, Llagami  A, Brahimaj  B, Papadimitriou  E, Pavlidou  V, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Albania, 2001. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2002;21:6036. DOIPubMed
  5. Papa  A, Bozovi  B, Pavlidou  V, Papadimitriou  E, Pelemis  M, Antoniadis  A. Genetic detection and isolation of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Kosovo, Yugoslavia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002;8:8524. DOIPubMed
  6. Papa  A, Dalla  V, Papadimitriou  E, Kartalis  GN, Antoniadis  A. Emergence of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in Greece. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2010;16:8437 .PubMed
  7. Papadopoulos  O, Koptopoulos  G. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) in Greece: isolation of the virus from Rhipicephalus bursa ticks and a preliminary serological survey. In: Vesenjak-Hirjan Jea, editor. Arboviruses in the Mediterranean countries. Stuttgart (Germany): Gustav Fisher Verlag; 1980. p. 117–21.
  8. Midilli  K, Gargili  A, Ergonul  O, Elevli  M, Ergin  S, Turan  N, The first clinical case due to AP92 like strain of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus and a field survey. BMC Infect Dis. 2009;9:90 and. DOIPubMed
  9. Papa  A, Sidira  P, Kallia  S, Ntouska  M, Zotos  N, Doumbali  E, Factors associated with IgG positivity to Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in the area with the highest seroprevalence in Greece. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2013;4:417–20.
  10. Papa  A, Tzala  E, Maltezou  HC. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, northeastern Greece. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:1413. DOIPubMed
  11. Sidira  P, Maltezou  HC, Haidich  AB, Papa  A. Seroepidemiological study of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in Greece, 2009–2010. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2012;18:E169. DOIPubMed
  12. Larichev  VF, Manzeniuk  IN, Naidenova  EV, Karan  LS, Sharova  IN, Shcherbakova  SA, ELISA and PCR test systems used to detect Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus [in Russian]. Vopr Virusol. 2007;52:436 .PubMed
  13. Williams  RJ, Al-Busaidy  S, Mehta  FR, Maupin  GO, Wagoner  KD, Al-Awaidy  S, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever: a seroepidemiological and tick survey in the Sultanate of Oman. Trop Med Int Health. 2000;5:99106. DOIPubMed
  14. Mousavi-Jazi  M, Karlberg  H, Papa  A, Christova  I, Mirazimi  A. Healthy individuals’ immune response to the Bulgarian Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus vaccine. Vaccine. 2012;30:62259. DOIPubMed
  15. Mustafa  ML, Ayazi  E, Mohareb  E, Yingst  S, Zayed  A, Rossi  CA, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Afghanistan, 2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:19401. DOIPubMed

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Page created: January 17, 2014
Page updated: January 17, 2014
Page reviewed: January 17, 2014
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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