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Volume 20, Number 2—February 2014

Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Greece

Anna PapaComments to Author , Persefoni Sidira, Victor Larichev, Ludmila Gavrilova, Ksenia Kuzmina, Mehrdad Mousavi-Jazi, Ali Mirazimi, Ute Ströher, and Stuart Nichol
Author affiliations: Aristotle University of Thessaloniki School of Medicine, Thessaloniki, Greece (A. Papa, P. Sidira); D.I. Ivanovsky Institute of Virology, Moscow, Russian Federation (V. Larichev, L. Gavrilova, K. Kuzmina); Swedish Institute for Communicable Disease Control, Stockholm, Sweden (M. Mousavi-Jazi, A. Mirazimi); National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala, Sweden (A. Mirazimi); Linköpings University Institute of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping, Sweden (A. Mirazimi); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA (U. Ströher, S. Nichol)

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Results of ELISA and IFA testing of 118 serum samples initially positive for CCHFV by ELISA, Greece*

Result No. (%) samples
Initial ELISA† CDC ELISA‡ Ivanovsky Institute ELISA§ IFA¶
High-positive 76 (64.4) 61 (51.7) 73 (61.8) 78 (66.1)
Positive 29 (24.6) 43 (36.4) 30 (25.4) 26 (22.0)
Low-positive 13 (11.0) 13 (11.0) 13 (11.0) 13 (11.0)
Negative NA 1 (0.8) 2 (1.7) 1 (0.8)

*IFA, immunofluorescence assay; CCHFV, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus; CDC, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; NA, not applicable.
†Samples were initially collected and tested for IgG by ELISA (Vektor-Best, Novosibirsk, Russia) as part of 3 previous seroprevalence studies (911).
‡CDC, Atlanta, Georgia, USA (13).
§Ivanovsky Institute of Virology, Moscow, Russia (12).
¶CCHFV Mosaic 2; Euroimmun Medizinische Labordiagnostika AG, Lübeck, Germany.

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  2. Christova  I, Di Caro  A, Papa  A, Castilletti  C, Andonova  L, Kalvatchev  N, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, southwestern Bulgaria. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:9835. DOIPubMed
  3. Duh  D, Saksida  A, Petrovec  M, Ahmeti  S, Dedushaj  I, Panning  M, Viral load as predictor of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever outcome. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13:176972. DOIPubMed
  4. Papa  A, Bino  S, Llagami  A, Brahimaj  B, Papadimitriou  E, Pavlidou  V, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Albania, 2001. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2002;21:6036. DOIPubMed
  5. Papa  A, Bozovi  B, Pavlidou  V, Papadimitriou  E, Pelemis  M, Antoniadis  A. Genetic detection and isolation of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Kosovo, Yugoslavia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002;8:8524. DOIPubMed
  6. Papa  A, Dalla  V, Papadimitriou  E, Kartalis  GN, Antoniadis  A. Emergence of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in Greece. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2010;16:8437 .PubMed
  7. Papadopoulos  O, Koptopoulos  G. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) in Greece: isolation of the virus from Rhipicephalus bursa ticks and a preliminary serological survey. In: Vesenjak-Hirjan Jea, editor. Arboviruses in the Mediterranean countries. Stuttgart (Germany): Gustav Fisher Verlag; 1980. p. 117–21.
  8. Midilli  K, Gargili  A, Ergonul  O, Elevli  M, Ergin  S, Turan  N, The first clinical case due to AP92 like strain of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus and a field survey. BMC Infect Dis. 2009;9:90 and. DOIPubMed
  9. Papa  A, Sidira  P, Kallia  S, Ntouska  M, Zotos  N, Doumbali  E, Factors associated with IgG positivity to Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in the area with the highest seroprevalence in Greece. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2013;4:417–20.
  10. Papa  A, Tzala  E, Maltezou  HC. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, northeastern Greece. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:1413. DOIPubMed
  11. Sidira  P, Maltezou  HC, Haidich  AB, Papa  A. Seroepidemiological study of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in Greece, 2009–2010. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2012;18:E169. DOIPubMed
  12. Larichev  VF, Manzeniuk  IN, Naidenova  EV, Karan  LS, Sharova  IN, Shcherbakova  SA, ELISA and PCR test systems used to detect Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus [in Russian]. Vopr Virusol. 2007;52:436 .PubMed
  13. Williams  RJ, Al-Busaidy  S, Mehta  FR, Maupin  GO, Wagoner  KD, Al-Awaidy  S, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever: a seroepidemiological and tick survey in the Sultanate of Oman. Trop Med Int Health. 2000;5:99106. DOIPubMed
  14. Mousavi-Jazi  M, Karlberg  H, Papa  A, Christova  I, Mirazimi  A. Healthy individuals’ immune response to the Bulgarian Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus vaccine. Vaccine. 2012;30:62259. DOIPubMed
  15. Mustafa  ML, Ayazi  E, Mohareb  E, Yingst  S, Zayed  A, Rossi  CA, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Afghanistan, 2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:19401. DOIPubMed

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Page created: January 17, 2014
Page updated: January 17, 2014
Page reviewed: January 17, 2014
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