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Volume 22, Number 7—July 2016
Research

High Incidence of Chikungunya Virus and Frequency of Viremic Blood Donations during Epidemic, Puerto Rico, USA, 2014

Graham SimmonsComments to Author , Vanessa Brès, Kai Lu, Nathan M. Liss, Donald J. Brambilla, Kyle R. Ryff, Roberta Bruhn, Edwin Velez, Derrek Ocampo, Jeffrey M. Linnen, Gerardo Latoni, Lyle R. Petersen, Phillip Williamson, and Edward L. Murphy
Author affiliations: Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, California, USA (G. Simmons, K. Lu, N.M. Liss, R. Bruhn, M.P. Busch); University of California, San Francisco (G. Simmons, M.P. Busch); Hologic, Inc., San Diego, California, USA (V. Brès, D. Ocampo, J.M. Linnen); RTI International, Rockville, Maryland, USA (D.J. Brambilla); Puerto Rico Department of Health, San Juan, Puerto Rico, USA (K.R. Ryff); Banco de Sangre de Servicios Mutuos, San Juan, Puerto Rico, USA (E. Velez, G. Latoni); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA (L.R. Petersen); Creative Testing Solutions, Tempe, Arizona, USA (P.C. Williamson)

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Figure 2

Viral loads for chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in blood donations during a chikungunya epidemic, Puerto Rico, USA, 2014. A) Positive minipool (MP) viral loads. Estimated viral loads (RNA copies/mL) were calculated for each reactive MP identified by using target capture transcription-mediated amplification (TC-TMA) during the epidemic. June 2014 (n = 106) is not plotted because of a lack of positive samples. Positive samples with unquantifiable viral loads are plotted as being at the limit of quantifi

Figure 2. Viral loads for chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in blood donations during a chikungunya epidemic, Puerto Rico, USA, 2014. A) Positive minipool (MP) viral loads. Estimated viral loads (RNA copies/mL) were calculated for each reactive MP identified by using target capture transcription-mediated amplification (TC-TMA) during the epidemic. June 2014 (n = 106) is not plotted because of a lack of positive samples. Positive samples with unquantifiable viral loads are plotted as being at the limit of quantification (3.16 copies/mL) and were included in calculation of medians (horizontal bars). B) Individual donor (ID) viral loads for CHIKV. Estimated viral loads were calculated for each positive specimen identified by using TC-TMA during the 3 peak months of the epidemic. Positive samples with unquantifiable viral loads are plotted as being at the limit of quantification (3.16 copies/mL) and were included in calculation of medians (horizontal bars). Samples are arranged in order of projected time postinfection on the basis of predicted time course of acute infection (shown as estimated mean ±SD time intervals in days). ID only, samples positive by nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) but not positive for a 1:16 dilution mimicking minipooling. MP positive, samples positive by ID-NAAT and at a 1:16 dilution. Dynamics of acute infection with CHIKV (26) from the eclipse period (negative for virus RNA and IgM and IgG against CHIKV) to the end of infection (positive or negative for virus RNA and positive for IgM and IgG against CHIKV) is based on similar staging of dynamics of acute infection for other arboviruses (27) and approximate detection periods as described in the text.

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Page updated: June 14, 2016
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