Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to page options Skip directly to site content

Volume 23, Number 11—November 2017

Research Letter

The Breadth of Viruses in Human Semen

Alex P. SalamComments to Author  and Peter W. Horby
Author affiliations: University of Oxford, Oxford, UK

Main Article

Table

Viruses that are capable of causing viremia and found in human semen*

Virus Family Detection in semen, maximum detection time, d Isolation from semen,
maximum detection time, d Evidence for sexual transmission within same cohort
Adenoviruses Adenoviridae AD RCC Unknown
Transfusion transmitted virus Anelloviridae NAA No data found Unknown
Lassa fever virus† Arenaviridae NAA, 103 RCC, 20 Unknown
Rift Valley fever virus† Bunyaviridae NAA, 117 No data found Unknown
Ebola virus Filoviridae NAA, 531 RCC, 82 Epi + mol + sem
Marburg virus† Filoviridae AD, 83 RAS, 83 Epi + sem
GB virus C Flaviviridae NAA No data found Epi + mol
Hepatitis C virus Flaviviridae NAA; AD No data found Epi + mol
Zika virus Flaviviridae NAA, 188 RCC, 7 Epi + mol + sem
Hepatitis B virus Hepadnaviridae NAA; AD RAS Epi + mol
Cytomegalovirus Herpesviridae NAA RCC Epi + mol + sem
Epstein Barr virus Herpesviridae NAA No data found Epi and semen
Human herpes virus 8 Herpesviridae NAA RCC Epi + mol
Human herpes virus 7 Herpesviridae NAA No data found Unknown
Human herpes virus 6 Herpesviridae NAA No data found Unknown
Human simplex viruses 1 and 2 Herpesviridae NAA; AD RCC Epi + mol + sem
Varicella zoster virus Herpesviridae NAA No data found Unknown
Mumps virus† Paramyxoviridae NAA, 40 RCC, 14 Unknown
Adeno-associated virus Parvoviridae NAA RCC Unknown
BK virus Polyomaviridae NAA No data found Unknown
JC virus Polyomaviridae NAA No data found Unknown
Simian virus 40 Polyomaviridae NAA No data found Unknown
HIV Retroviridae NAA; AD RCC Epi + mol + sem
Human T-cell lymphoma virus 1† Retroviridae No data found RAS Epi + mol
Simian foamy virus Retroviridae NAA No data found Unknown
Chikungunya virus† Togaviridae NAA, 30 No data found Unknown

*Presence of nucleic acid or antigen in semen does not represent the presence of replication-competent or infection-competent virus, which can generally only be demonstrated by isolation and culture of virus. Maximum detection time refers to time from symptom onset (only in viruses that cause acute only, not chronic, infection). A complete table with references is provided in the Technical Appendix). AD, antigen detection; Epi, epidemiologic evidence of sexual transmission; mol, molecular/phylogenetic evidence of sexual transmission; NAA, nucleic acid amplification or detection; RAS, replication in animal system; RCC, replication in cell culture; sem, isolation from semen.
†Data found only in the context of case reports and not case series, case control, or cohort studies.

Main Article

TOP