Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link
Volume 23, Supplement—December 2017
SUPPLEMENT ISSUE
Global Health Security Supplement
Overview

US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Its Partners’ Contributions to Global Health Security

Jordan W. TapperoComments to Author , Cynthia H. Cassell, Rebecca Bunnell, Frederick J. Angulo, Allen Craig, Nicki Pesik, Benjamin A. Dahl, Kashef Ijaz, Hamid Jafari, Rebecca Martin, and Global Health Security Science Group
Author affiliations: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

Main Article

Table 1

Selected US CDC global health protection platform accomplishments*

Global health protection accomplishments Number Timeframe
Emergency mitigation of global health threats
Ending the West Africa Ebola outbreak
CDC staff deployments overall, domestic and international >3,500 2014–2016
Departing passengers in the 3 affected countries screened for Ebola virus disease >339,000 2014–2016
Vaccinations of health workers in Ebola trial >8,000 2015
Days of continuous operation of high-throughput laboratory capacity in Sierra Leone; >23,000 specimens tested 421 2014–2015
US healthcare workers trained in Anniston, AL, to work in West Africa >600 2015
GRRT
CDC-trained GRRT experts prepared to deploy on short notice to a public health emergency >400 2017 (Jun)
GRRT mobilizations (>14,000 cumulative person-days), supporting responses to global health emergencies including Zika, yellow fever, cholera, measles, polio, and Ebola >420 2015–2017 (Jun)
Rapid humanitarian responses
Staff deployments in response to public health humanitarian emergencies in >40 countries >380 2011–2016
Staff deployments to 6 countries in response to Syria crisis 85 2012–2016
Countries with morbidity/mortality surveillance systems implemented in response to Horn of Africa famine 3 2011–2012
PHEM program
Fellows from 28 countries trained through CDC PHEM fellowship 69 2013–2017 (Jun)
Countries that have received CDC emergency management technical assistance and training 56 2013–2016
Countries that participated in a real and/or simulated response with CDC technical assistance 19 2013–2016
Global Disease Detection Operations Center
Serious public health threats assessed >1,500 2007–2016
Countries where serious outbreaks were investigated/contained, where CDC provided technical assistance >190 2007–2016
Unique diseases tracked globally >170 2007–2016
Outbreaks monitored and reported in >130 countries for ≈40 different diseases ≈300 2016
GDD activities
GDD regional centers 10 2006–2016
New diagnostic tests established in national or regional laboratories >380 2006–2016
New strains/pathogens detected and/or discovered (new to the world, new to country or region, or new modes of transmission likely because of increased ability to detect through newly introduced laboratory tests) in which GDD assisted in detection and identification 79 2006–2016
Outbreaks responded to by GDD center that provided epidemiology and/or laboratory assistance 2,051 2006–2016
Outbreak investigations in which laboratory support was provided 1,363 2006–2016
Participants who received public health trainings conducted at national and/or regional level on topics, including epidemiology, laboratory, all-hazards preparedness, and risk communication
115,566
2006–2016
Capacity-building partnerships to contain threats at the source
GHSA implementation
GHSA countries: 17 Phase I countries, 14 Phase II countries, and CARICOM† >31 2015–2017 (Mar)
Phase I countries with enhanced surveillance systems for zoonotic diseases 13 2015–2017 (Mar)
Countries that detected dangerous pathogens using new equipment and capabilities 16 2015–2017 (Mar)
Phase I countries supported in development of Emergency Operations Centers 16 2015–2017 (Mar)
Joint External Evaluation
GHSA assessments conducted before tool finalization 6 2016
Evaluations completed 52 2016–2017 (Jul)
Public health workforce development
Countries with CDC-supported FETPs 65 1980–2016
Graduates of FETPs-Advanced >3,900 1982–2016
Outbreaks investigated by FETPs-Advanced trainees >3,300 2005–2016
New FETPs-Frontline started 24 2014–2016
Participants in FETPs-Frontline >1,860 2015–2016
Global vaccine-preventable disease activities
STOP program volunteers trained in surveillance principles to detect and respond to cases of polio and other vaccine-preventable diseases 2,010 1998–2017 (Jul)
Countries with volunteers deployed for the STOP program 77 1998–2016
Countries supported by CDC to build national STOP programs 4 1998–2016
NPHIs
Members of International Association of National Public Health Institutes and supported by CDC >100 2016
Countries receiving NPHI development support from CDC >20 2016
Persons across the globe served by NPHIs 5 billion 2016

*CARICOM, Caribbean Community; CDC, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; FETP, field epidemiology training program; GDD, Global Disease Detection; GHSA, Global Health Security Agenda; GRRT, Global Rapid Response Team; NPHI, National Public Health Institute; PHEM, public health emergency management; STOP, Stop Transmission of Polio.
†CARICOM is an organization of 15 Caribbean nations and dependencies. In 2015, the US government committed to accelerating GHSA implementation with 31 countries and CARICOM (Figure 1). In 17 Phase I, 14 Phase II, and CARICOM nations (Figure 1), CDC provides technical assistance to support country capacity assessments, the development of 5-year GHSA road maps, and annual GHSA implementation plans. In the Phase I countries, CDC also provides financial support for implementation of the GHSA action packages (Table 2) (1416).

Main Article

References
  1. Peiris  JS, Yuen  KY, Osterhaus  AD, Stöhr  K. The severe acute respiratory syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2003;349:243141. DOIPubMed
  2. Rodier  G, Greenspan  AL, Hughes  JM, Heymann  DL. Global public health security. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13:144752. DOIPubMed
  3. Fineberg  HV. Pandemic preparedness and response—lessons from the H1N1 influenza of 2009. N Engl J Med. 2014;370:133542. DOIPubMed
  4. Barzilay  EJ, Schaad  N, Magloire  R, Mung  KS, Boncy  J, Dahourou  GA, et al. Cholera surveillance during the Haiti epidemic—the first 2 years. N Engl J Med. 2013;368:599609. DOIPubMed
  5. Assiri  A, McGeer  A, Perl  TM, Price  CS, Al Rabeeah  AA, Cummings  DA, et al.; KSA MERS-CoV Investigation Team. Hospital outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. N Engl J Med. 2013;369:40716. DOIPubMed
  6. Bell  DM, Damon  I, Bedrosian  SR, Johnson  VR, McQuiston  JH, O’Connor  J. CDC’s response to the 2014–2016 Ebola epidemic—West Africa and United States. MMWR Suppl. 2016;65:1106 https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/65/su/pdfs/su6503.pdf. DOI
  7. Ikejezie  J, Shapiro  CN, Kim  J, Chiu  M, Almiron  M, Ugarte  C, et al. Zika virus transmission—region of the Americas, May 15, 2015–December 15, 2016. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2017;66:32934. DOIPubMed
  8. World Health Organization. Emergency preparedness, response: yellow fever. 2017 [cited 2017 Jul 21]. http://www.who.int/csr/don/archive/disease/yellow_fever/en/
  9. Gostin  LO, Katz  R. The International Health Regulations: the governing framework for global health security. Milbank Q. 2016;94:264313 .
  10. Schuchat  A, Tappero  J, Blandford  J. Global health and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Lancet. 2014;384:98101. DOIPubMed
  11. Schneider  D, Evering-Watley  M, Walke  H, Bloland  PB. Training the global public health workforce through applied epidemiology training programs: CDC’s experience, 1951–2011. Public Health Rev. 2011;33:190203. DOI
  12. Jones  D, MacDonald  G, Volkov  B, Herrera-Guibert  D. Multisite evaluation of Field Epidemiology Training Programs: findings and recommendations. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2014 [cited 2017 Jul 21]. https://www.cdc.gov/globalhealth/healthprotection/fetp/pdf/fetp_evaluation_report_may_2014.pdf
  13. United Nations Development Programme. Human development report. 2015 [cited 2017 Jul 21]. http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/2015_human_development_report.pdf.
  14. Heymann  DL, Chen  L, Takemi  K, Fidler  DP, Tappero  JW, Thomas  MJ, et al. Global health security: the wider lessons from the West African Ebola virus disease epidemic. Lancet. 2015;385:1884901. DOIPubMed
  15. Frieden  TR, Tappero  JW, Dowell  SF, Hien  NT, Guillaume  FD, Aceng  JR. Safer countries through global health security. Lancet. 2014;383:7646. DOIPubMed
  16. Global Health Security Agenda [cited 2017 Jul 21]. https://www.GHSAgenda.org/
  17. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC’s ongoing work to contain Ebola in West Africa: flare-ups of Ebola since the control of the initial outbreak. 2016 [cited 2017 Jul 21]. https://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/pdf/cdcs-ongoing-work.pdf
  18. Kupferschmidt  K. Fears of Ebola resurgence quickly dispelled in Liberia. Science. 2017;356:575. DOIPubMed
  19. Toole  MJ, Waldman  RJ. Refugees and displaced persons. War, hunger, and public health. JAMA. 1993;270:6005. DOIPubMed
  20. Brennan  RJ, Nandy  R. Complex humanitarian emergencies: a major global health challenge. Emerg Med (Fremantle). 2001;13:14756. DOIPubMed
  21. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Famine-affected, refugee, and displaced populations: recommendations for public health issues. MMWR Recomm Rep. 1992;41(RR-13):176.PubMed
  22. Toole  MJ, Waldman  RJ. The public health aspects of complex emergencies and refugee situations. Annu Rev Public Health. 1997;18:283312. DOIPubMed
  23. Salama  P, Spiegel  P, Talley  L, Waldman  R. Lessons learned from complex emergencies over past decade. Lancet. 2004;364:180113. DOIPubMed
  24. Spiegel  PB, Checchi  F, Colombo  S, Paik  E. Health-care needs of people affected by conflict: future trends and changing frameworks. Lancet. 2010;375:3415. DOIPubMed
  25. United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. Plan and budget. 2016 [cited 2017 Jul 21]. https://docs.unocha.org/sites/dms/Documents/OCHAin2016.pdf.
  26. Leidel  L, Groseclose  S, Burney  B, Navin  P, Wooster  M; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC’s emergency management program activities—worldwide, 2003–2012. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2013;62:70913.PubMed
  27. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Emergency Management Accreditation Program (EMAP) frequently asked questions (FAQ) [cited 2017 Jul 21]. https://esp.cdc.gov/sites/ophpr/DEOv2/Documents/One%20Pager_Emergency%20Management%20Accreditation%20Program_20131112.pdf
  28. Christian  KA, Iuliano  AD, Uyeki  TM, Mintz  ED, Nichol  ST, Rollin  P, et al. What we are watching—five top global infectious disease threats, 2013–2016: an update from CDC’s Global Disease Detection Operations Center. Health Secur. 2017;15:45362. DOI
  29. Dowell  SF, Blazes  D, Desmond-Hellmann  S. Four steps to precision public health. Nature. 2016;540:18991. DOI
  30. Maïnassara  HB, Paireau  J, Idi  I, Pelat  JP, Oukem-Boyer  OO, Fontanet  A, et al. Response strategies against meningitis epidemics after elimination of serogroup A meningococci, Niger. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21:13229. DOIPubMed
  31. World Health Organization. Joint external evaluation tool: International Health Regulations (2005). [cited 2017 July 21]. http://www.who.int/iris/handle/10665/204368
  32. Iuliano  AD, Jang  Y, Jones  J, Davis  CT, Wentworth  DE, Uyeki  TM, et al. Increase in human infections with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus during the fifth epidemic—China, October 2016– February 2017. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2017;66:2545. DOIPubMed
  33. Novak  RT, Kambou  JL, Diomandé  FVK, Tarbangdo  TF, Ouédraogo-Traoré  R, Sangaré  L, et al. Serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccination in Burkina Faso: analysis of national surveillance data. Lancet Infect Dis. 2012;12:75764. DOIPubMed
  34. Woolhouse  ME, Gowtage-Sequeria  S. Host range and emerging and reemerging pathogens. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11:18427. DOIPubMed
  35. Jones  KE, Patel  NG, Levy  MA, Storeygard  A, Balk  D, Gittleman  JL, et al. Global trends in emerging infectious diseases. Nature. 2008;451:9903. DOIPubMed
  36. Gebreyes  WA, Dupouy-Camet  J, Newport  MJ, Oliveira  CJ, Schlesinger  LS, Saif  YM, et al. The global One Health paradigm: challenges and opportunities for tackling infectious diseases at the human, animal, and environment interface in low-resource settings. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2014;8:e3257. DOIPubMed
  37. Rist  CL, Arriola  CS, Rubin  C. Prioritizing zoonosis: a proposed One Health tool for collaborative decision-making. PLoS One. 2014;9:e109986. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0109986
  38. Pathmanathan  I, O’Connor  KA, Adams  ML, Rao  CY, Kilmarx  PH, Park  BJ, et al.; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Rapid assessment of Ebola infection prevention and control needs—six districts, Sierra Leone, October 2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2014;63:11724.PubMed
  39. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Global health-global immunization: history of the STOP Program. 2016. [cited 2017 Apr 7]. https://www.cdc.gov/globalhealth/immunization/stop/about.htm
  40. Waziri  NE, Ohuabunwo  CJ, Nguku  PM, Ogbuanu  IU, Gidado  S, Biya  O, et al. Polio eradication in Nigeria and the role of the National Stop Transmission of Polio program, 2012–2013. J Infect Dis. 2014;210(Suppl 1):S1117. DOIPubMed
  41. Kisakye  A, Tenywa  E. The National Stop Transmission of Polio (STOP) programme in Uganda 2012–2014. African Health Monitor. 2014;19:534.
  42. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC in Pakistan. 2013 [cited 2016 Sep 9]. https://www.cdc.gov/globalhealth/countries/pakistan/pdf/pakistan_factsheet.pdf
  43. Frieden  TR, Damon  IK. Ebola in West Africa—CDC’s role in epidemic detection, control, and prevention. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21:1897905. DOIPubMed
  44. Frieden  TR, Koplan  JP. Stronger national public health institutes for global health. Lancet. 2010;376:17212. DOIPubMed
  45. International Association of National Public Health Institutes. National Public Health Institutes Core Functions and Attributes. 2009 [cited 2017 July 21]. www.ianphi.org/documents/pdfs/Core%20Functions%20IANPHI%20Brief.pdf
  46. Lee  JW, McKibbin  WJ. Estimating the global economic costs of SARS. In: Knobler S, Mahmoud A, Lemon S, Mac A, Sivitz L, Oberholtzer K, editors. Learning from SARS: preparing for the next disease outbreak. Washington: National Academies Press; 2008. p. 92–109.
  47. Dawood  FS, Iuliano  AD, Reed  C, Meltzer  MI, Shay  DK, Cheng  PY, et al. Estimated global mortality associated with the first 12 months of 2009 pandemic influenza A H1N1 virus circulation: a modelling study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2012;12:68795. DOIPubMed
  48. Burns  A, van der Mensbrugghe  D, Timmer  H. Evaluating the economic consequences of avian influenza. World Bank. 2008 [cited 2017 July 21]. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/977141468158986545/pdf/474170WP0Evalu101PUBLIC10Box334133B.pdf.
  49. The World Bank. Summary on the Ebola recovery plan: Sierra Leone. 2015 [cited 2017 July 21]. http://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/ebola/brief/summary-on-the-ebola-recovery-plan-sierra-leone.
  50. Bambery  Z, Cassell  CH, Bunnell  RE, Roy  K, Ahmed  Z, Payne  RL, et al. Impact of hypothetical infectious disease outbreak on U.S. exports and export-based jobs. Health Secur. In press 2017.

Main Article

1Group members are listed at the end of this article.

Page created: November 20, 2017
Page updated: November 20, 2017
Page reviewed: November 20, 2017
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
file_external