Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link
Volume 24, Number 1—January 2018

Increasing Virulence in Leprosy Indicated by Global Mycobacterium spp.

On This Page
Article Metrics
citations of this article
EID Journal Metrics on Scopus

Cite This Article

To the Editor: The November 2017 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases had 3 articles about leprosy, including these topics: a United States–born patient who tested positive for Mycobacterium lepromatosis (1); a lethal case of Mycobacterium leprae manifested as Lucio’s phenomenon in Peru (2); and pointing out that leprosy is an emerging disease in the eastern United States, including autochthonous cases without exposure to armadillos (3), which were previously shown to be a zoonotic source of transmission in the United States (4). Not only is leprosy not disappearing in the United States and globally, but the signs are pointing to a more virulent mycobacterial infection that is likely to be a microbial adaptation to the global use of multidrug therapy, as previously reported (5).

Lucio’s phenomenon is fortunately rare; there is no proven effective therapy for this type 3 reaction in leprosy patients. Historically, Lucio’s phenomenon was confined to Mexico, mostly in cases of diffuse lepromatous leprosy, also referred to as “Leprosy bonita.” In recent years, it has been discovered elsewhere, including the first known case in India in 2001 (6). Two additional cases of lethal Lucio’s leprosy were reported in 2 immigrants from Singapore to the United States, who were shown to have M. lepromatosis and M. leprae (7). The report of Levis et al. is likely confirmed by the recent discovery of M. lepromatosis and Lucio’s outside of Mexico (5).

In summary, leprosy is an emerging infection in the United States, including autochthonous cases in the eastern United States. The reports in the November issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases of autochthonous M. lepromatosis and a lethal case of Lucio’s phenomenon outside Mexico are ominous signs of a more virulent form of emerging leprosy.


William LevisComments to Author , Tina Rendini, and Frank Martiniuk
Author affiliations: Bellevue Hospital Center, New York, New York, USA (W. Levis, T. Rendini); JME Group, Roseland, New Jersey, USA (F. Martiniuk)



  1. Virk  A, Pritt  B, Patel  R, Uhl  JR, Bezalel  SA, Gibson  LE, et al. Mycobacterium lepromatosis lepromatous leprosy in US citizen who traveled to disease-endemic areas. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23:18646. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Ramal  C, Casapia  M, Marin  J, Celis  JC, Baldeon  J, Vilcarromero  S, et al. Diffuse multibacillary leprosy of Lucio and Latapí with Lucio’s phenomenon, Peru. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23:192930. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Rendini  T, Levis  W. <jrn>3. Rendini T, Levis W. Autochthonous leprosy without armadillo exposure, eastern United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23:1928. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Sharma  R, Singh  P, Loughry  WJ, Lockhart  JM, Inman  WB, Duthie  MS, et al. Zoonotic leprosy in the southeastern United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21:212734. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Levis  WR, Zhang  S, Martiniuk  F. Mycobacterium lepromatosis: emerging strain or species? J Drugs Dermatol. 2012;11:158.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Saoji  V, Salodkar  A. Lucio leprosy with lucio phenomenon. Indian J Lepr. 2001;73:26772.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Han  XY, Sizer  KC, Tan  HH. Identification of the leprosy agent Mycobacterium lepromatosis in Singapore. J Drugs Dermatol. 2012;11:16872.PubMedGoogle Scholar


Cite This Article

DOI: 10.3201/eid2401.171785

Related Links


Table of Contents – Volume 24, Number 1—January 2018

EID Search Options
presentation_01 Advanced Article Search – Search articles by author and/or keyword.
presentation_01 Articles by Country Search – Search articles by the topic country.
presentation_01 Article Type Search – Search articles by article type and issue.



Please use the form below to submit correspondence to the authors or contact them at the following address:

William Levis, New York Hansen’s Disease Program, Bellevue Hospital Center, 462 1st Ave, Rm 17N7, New York, NY 10016, USA

Send To

10000 character(s) remaining.


Page created: December 19, 2017
Page updated: December 19, 2017
Page reviewed: December 19, 2017
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.