Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link
Volume 24, Number 11—November 2018

Leishmaniasis in Northern Syria during Civil War

Khalid Rehman, Julia Walochnik, Johannes Mischlinger, Bodour Alassil, Richard Allan, and Michael RamharterComments to Author 
Author affiliations: Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria (K. Rehman, J. Walochnik, J. Mischlinger, M. Ramharter); Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine, Hamburg, Germany (J. Mischlinger, M. Ramharter); University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (J. Mischlinger, M. Ramharter); The MENTOR Initiative, West Sussex, UK (B. Alassil, R. Allan)

Main Article

Figure 4

Results of cpb-EF PCR (14,15) on patient samples identified as belonging to the Leishmania infantum/donovani complex in study of leishmaniasis control programs in northern Syria. Lane 1, step marker; lanes 2 and 3, L. donovani strain 275 with 3 and 6 μL of DNA, respectively; lane 4, negative control; lanes 5 and 6, L. infantum strain 282 with 3 and 6 μL of DNA, respectively.

Figure 4. Results of cpb-EF PCR (14,15) on patient samples identified as belonging to the Leishmania infantum/donovani complex in study of leishmaniasis control programs in northern Syria. Lane 1, step marker; lanes 2 and 3, L. donovani strain 275 with 3 and 6 μL of DNA, respectively; lane 4, negative control; lanes 5 and 6, L. infantum strain 282 with 3 and 6 μL of DNA, respectively.

Main Article

  1. World Health Organization. Global Health Observatory country views: Syrian Arab Republic, 1994–2010 [cited 2014 Aug 28].
  2. Salam  N, Al-Shaqha  WM, Azzi  A. Leishmaniasis in the middle East: incidence and epidemiology. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2014;8:e3208. DOIPubMed
  3. Hayani  K, Dandashli  A, Weisshaar  E. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Syria: clinical features, current status and the effects of war. Acta Derm Venereol. 2015;95:626. DOIPubMed
  4. Alasaad  S. War diseases revealed by the social media: massive leishmaniasis outbreak in the Syrian Spring. Parasit Vectors. 2013;6:94. DOIPubMed
  5. World Health Organization. Global strategic framework for integrated vector management; 2004 [cited 2017 Jan 2].
  6. Boggild  AK, Miranda-Verastegui  C, Espinosa  D, Arevalo  J, Adaui  V, Tulliano  G, et al. Evaluation of a microculture method for isolation of Leishmania parasites from cutaneous lesions of patients in Peru. J Clin Microbiol. 2007;45:36804. DOIPubMed
  7. Boggild  AK, Miranda-Verastegui  C, Espinosa  D, Arevalo  J, Martinez-Medina  D, Llanos-Cuentas  A, et al. Optimization of microculture and evaluation of miniculture for the isolation of Leishmania parasites from cutaneous lesions in Peru. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2008;79:84752. DOIPubMed
  8. Peruhype-Magalhães  V, Machado-de-Assis  TS, Rabello  A. Use of the Kala-Azar Detect® and IT-LEISH® rapid tests for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2012;107:9512. DOIPubMed
  9. Valencia  BM, Veland  N, Alba  M, Adaui  V, Arevalo  J, Low  DE, et al. Non-invasive cytology brush PCR for the diagnosis and causative species identification of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Peru. PLoS One. 2012;7:e49738. DOIPubMed
  10. Boggild  AK, Valencia  BM, Espinosa  D, Veland  N, Ramos  AP, Arevalo  J, et al. Detection and species identification of Leishmania DNA from filter paper lesion impressions for patients with American cutaneous leishmaniasis. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;50:e16. DOIPubMed
  11. el Tai  NO, Osman  OF, el Fari  M, Presber  W, Schönian  G. Genetic heterogeneity of ribosomal internal transcribed spacer in clinical samples of Leishmania donovani spotted on filter paper as revealed by single-strand conformation polymorphisms and sequencing. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2000;94:5759. DOIPubMed
  12. Schönian  G, Nasereddin  A, Dinse  N, Schweynoch  C, Schallig  HD, Presber  W, et al. PCR diagnosis and characterization of Leishmania in local and imported clinical samples. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2003;47:34958. DOIPubMed
  13. Haralambous  C, Antoniou  M, Pratlong  F, Dedet  JP, Soteriadou  K. Development of a molecular assay specific for the Leishmania donovani complex that discriminates L. donovani/Leishmania infantum zymodemes: a useful tool for typing MON-1. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2008;60:3342. DOIPubMed
  14. Hide  M, Bañuls  AL. Species-specific PCR assay for L. infantum/L. donovani discrimination. Acta Trop. 2006;100:2415. DOIPubMed
  15. Zackay  A, Nasereddin  A, Takele  Y, Tadesse  D, Hailu  W, Hurissa  Z, et al. Polymorphism in the HASPB repeat region of East African Leishmania donovani strains. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7:e2031. DOIPubMed
  16. Van der Auwera  G, Maes  I, De Doncker  S, Ravel  C, Cnops  L, Van Esbroeck  M, et al. Heat-shock protein 70 gene sequencing for Leishmania species typing in European tropical infectious disease clinics. Euro Surveill. 2013;18:20543. DOIPubMed
  17. World Health Organization. Number of cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis reported; data by country, 2005–2016 [cited 2018 June 22].
  18. World Health Organization. Control of the leishmaniases. World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser. 2010; (949):xiixiii, 1–186, back cover.PubMed
  19. Belazzoug  S, Pratlong  F, Rioux  JA. [A new zymodeme of Leishmania tropica, agent of Aleppo boil (Syria)]. Arch Inst Pasteur Alger. 1988;56:959.PubMed
  20. Al-Nahhas  SA, Kaldas  RM. Characterization of Leishmania species isolated from cutaneous human samples from central region of Syria by RFLP analysis. ISRN Parasitol. 2013;2013:308726. DOIPubMed
  21. Haddad  N, Saliba  H, Altawil  A, Villinsky  J, Al-Nahhas  S. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in the central provinces of Hama and Edlib in Syria: Vector identification and parasite typing. Parasit Vectors. 2015;8:524. DOIPubMed
  22. Khiami  A, Dereure  J, Pratlong  F, Martini  A, Rioux  JA. La leishmaniose cutanée humaine à Leishmania major MON-26 aux environs de Damas (Syrie). Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 1991;84:3404.PubMed
  23. Rioux  J, Leger  N, Haddad  N, Desjeux  P. Natural infestation of Phlebotomus tobbi (Diptera, Psychodidae) by Leishmania donovani s. st. (Kinetoplastida, Trypanosomatidae) in Syria. Parassitologia. 1998;40(Suppl1):148.
  24. Zackay  A, Nasereddin  A, Schnur  L, Jaffe  C. Molecular characterization of Leishmania donovani in Israel, GenBank accession no. HQ170543; 2016 [cited 2018 Jun 22].
  25. Alam  MZ, Haralambous  C, Kuhls  K, Gouzelou  E, Sgouras  D, Soteriadou  K, et al. The paraphyletic composition of Leishmania donovani zymodeme MON-37 revealed by multilocus microsatellite typing. Microbes Infect. 2009;11:70715. DOIPubMed
  26. Antoniou  M, Haralambous  C, Mazeris  A, Pratlong  F, Dedet  JP, Soteriadou  K. Leishmania donovani leishmaniasis in Cyprus. Lancet Infect Dis. 2008;8:67. DOIPubMed
  27. Bhattacharyya  T, Boelaert  M, Miles  MA. Comparison of visceral leishmaniasis diagnostic antigens in African and Asian Leishmania donovani reveals extensive diversity and region-specific polymorphisms. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7:e2057. DOIPubMed
  28. Gouzelou  E, Haralambous  C, Amro  A, Mentis  A, Pratlong  F, Dedet  JP, et al. Multilocus microsatellite typing (MLMT) of strains from Turkey and Cyprus reveals a novel monophyletic L. donovani sensu lato group. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1507. DOIPubMed
  29. Özbilgin  A, Harman  M, Karakuş  M, Bart  A, Töz  S, Kurt  Ö, et al. Leishmaniasis in Turkey: Visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania donovani in Turkey. Acta Trop. 2017;173:906. DOIPubMed
  30. Kariyawasam  UL, Selvapandiyan  A, Rai  K, Wani  TH, Ahuja  K, Beg  MA, et al. Genetic diversity of Leishmania donovani that causes cutaneous leishmaniasis in Sri Lanka: a cross sectional study with regional comparisons. BMC Infect Dis. 2017;17:791. DOIPubMed

Main Article

Page created: October 16, 2018
Page updated: October 16, 2018
Page reviewed: October 16, 2018
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.