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Volume 24, Number 6—June 2018
Perspective

Ferrets as Models for Influenza Virus Transmission Studies and Pandemic Risk Assessments

Jessica A. BelserComments to Author , Wendy Barclay, Ian Barr, Ron A.M. Fouchier, Ryota Matsuyama, Hiroshi Nishiura, Malik Peiris, Charles J. Russell, Kanta Subbarao, Huachen Zhu, and Hui-Ling YenComments to Author 
Author affiliations: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA (J.A. Belser); Imperial College, London, UK (W. Barclay); Doherty Institute, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia (I. Barr, K. Subbarao); Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands (R.A.M. Fouchier); Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan (R. Matsuyama, H. Nishiura); The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China (M. Peiris, H. Zhu, H.-L. Yen); St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, USA (C.J. Russell)

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Table 1

Examples of heterogeneity in experimental designs among published risk-assessment studies using ferrets as models for influenza virus transmission studies and pandemic risk assessments*

Parameter Examples of variability
Virus (before ferret introduction)
Seed stock passage history, stock growth matrix, stock titer, wild-type vs. reverse genetics, plaque-purified vs. quasispecies, storage and propagation conditions
Ferret (before virus introduction)
Source/genetic lineage, serostatus, age, sex, weight, neutered or intact status, hormonal treatment (females), anesthetic used, housing conditions
Virus inoculation
Inoculation route, method, dose, and volume; buffer for dilution
Transmission experimental designs Donor:recipient ratio, number of replicates per containment, caging size and setup, perforation size and exposure area between cages, distance between cages, directional airflow, air changes per hour, temperature and humidity, timing and duration of exposure, frequency and sites for sample collection

*References for individual studies using these conditions are described in (1).

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References
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Page created: May 18, 2018
Page updated: May 18, 2018
Page reviewed: May 18, 2018
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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