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Volume 25, Number 10—October 2019
Dispatch

Rapid Screening of Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes for Susceptibility to Insecticides as Part of Zika Emergency Response, Puerto Rico

Ryan R. HemmeComments to Author , Lucrecia Vizcaino, Angela F. Harris, Gilberto Felix, Michael Kavanaugh, Joan L. Kenney, Nicole M. Nazario, Marvin S. Godsey, Roberto Barrera, Julieanne Miranda, and Audrey Lenhart
Author affiliations: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, San Juan, Puerto Rico, USA (R.R. Hemme, A.F. Harris, G. Felix, R. Barrera); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA (L. Vizcaino, A. Lenhart); United States Navy, Jacksonville, Florida, USA (M. Kavanaugh); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA (J.L. Kenney, M.S. Godsey); Puerto Rico Vector Control Unit, San Juan (N.M. Nazario, J. Miranda)

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Table

Locations and death rates for Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in bottle bioassays, Puerto Rico, 2016

Municipality or barrio Insecticide, concentration per bottle
Simple pyrethroids, 15 μg
Cyano-pyrethroids, 10 μg
Organophosphates
Carbamate, bendiocarb, 12.5 μg
Permethirn Phenothrin Etofenprox Tetramethrin Bifenthrin Alpha-cypermethrin Deltamethrin Lambda-cyhalothrin Naled, 25 μg Malathion, 50 μg
East
Caguas, Condado Moderno 3.7 27.3 25.0 5.9 100 66.7
Caguas, Urb. Idamaris Garden 5.0 90.4
Caguas, Villa Blanca 0 87.2
Caguas, Villa de Castro 0 75.9
Canóvanas 1.2 0 20.0 44.1 90.0 16.0
Fajardo 0 0 0 27.5 38.1 60.0 41.5 100 53.7
Humacao 0 0 0 22.5 23.5 62.5 36.8 100 67.3
Juncos
0



45.1

44.3
73.1
65.9

100
58.8

Metro
Bayamón 0 19.2 86.7 33.3 100
Bayamón, Irlanda 31.6
Bayamón, Pájaros 50.0
Bayamón, Teresita 69.6
Carolina, El Comandante 1.1
Carolina, Los Colobos 0
Carolina, Villa Carolina 1.0
Carolina, Vistamar 22.5 100
Cataño 0 60.8 82.7 64.0 100
Guaynabo, Ponce de León 0 5.9 66.7 40.0 100 12.8
Guaynabo, Sabana 78.2 100
Guaynabo, Villa Clementina 55.0 100
San Juan, Caparra Terrace 0 100
San Juan, Israel 0 100
San Juan, Puerto Nuevo 0 29.4 59.0 92.8 47.2 100 53.1
San Juan, Venus Garden 2.1 100
San Juan, El Commandante

0

0
14.3

39.6
97.5
45.9




South
Guayama 1.4 1.3 90.0 98.7 100 93.7
Patillas 0 82.9 68.6 46.0 78.0 100 80.8
Peñuelas 0 47.3 48.5 79.4 60.8 100 40.5
Ponce 2.1 2.2 40.0 27.9 34.1 100 34.0
Salinas

0
0

82.5

95.7
100
72.5




West
Aquadilla 0 31.8 52.6 18.2 100
Arecibo 7.7 85.5 98.8 40.3
Isabela 45.1 82.4 100 86.6 100 25.0
Manati 3.8 84.0 96.6 93.8 100 93.8
Mayagüez 7.8 84.0 96.0 89.0
San German 15.6 83.8 20.0
Vega Alta 0 46.9 93.6 48.6
Vega Baja 0 43.0 98.0

*Bold indicates insecticides that are effective against Ae. aegypti mosquitoes as defined by the World Health Organization (susceptible as >98% mortality, partially resistant as 90%–97% mortality, and resistant as <90% mortality) (12). Blank cells indicate insecticide resistance assays for thos insecticides with those mosquitoes (from the corresponding geographic areas) were not done.

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References
  1. Thomas  DL, Sharp  TM, Torres  J, Armstrong  PA, Munoz-Jordan  J, Ryff  KR, et al. Local Transmission of Zika Virus—Puerto Rico, November 23, 2015-January 28, 2016. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2016;65:1548. DOIPubMed
  2. Zanluca  C, Melo  VC, Mosimann  AL, Santos  GI, Santos  CN, Luz  K. First report of autochthonous transmission of Zika virus in Brazil. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2015;110:56972. DOIPubMed
  3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Zika virus: case counts in the US 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 10]. https://www.cdc.gov/zika/reporting/2016-case-counts.html
  4. Flynn  AD, Schoof  HF, Morlan  HB, Porter  JE. Susceptibility of seventeen strains of Aedes aegypti (L.) from Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands to DDT, dieldrin, and malathion. Mosq News. 1964;24:11823.
  5. Fox  I. Malathion resistance in Aedes aegypti of Puerto Rico induced by selection pressure on larvae. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1980;29:14569. DOIPubMed
  6. Hemingway  J, Boddington  RG, Harrisa  J, Sumbar  SJ. Mechanisms of insecticide resistance in Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) from Puerto Rico. Bull Entomol Res. 1989;79:79. DOI
  7. Ponce-García  G, Del Río-Galvan  S, Barrera  R, Saavedra-Rodriguez  K, Villanueva-Segura  K, Felix  G, et al. Knockdown resistance mutations in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) from Puerto Rico. J Med Entomol. 2016;53:14104. DOIPubMed
  8. World Health Organization. Vector control operations framework for Zika virus. Geneva: The Organization; 2016.
  9. World Health Organization. Mosquito (vector) control emergency response and preparedness for Zika virus. Geneva: The Organization; 2016.
  10. Reiter  P, Amador  MA, Colon  N. Enhancement of the CDC ovitrap with hay infusions for daily monitoring of Aedes aegypti populations. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 1991;7:525.PubMed
  11. Hemme  RR, Poole-Smith  BK, Hunsperger  EA, Felix  GE, Horiuchi  K, Biggerstaff  BJ, et al. Non-human primate antibody response to mosquito salivary proteins: Implications for dengue virus transmission in Puerto Rico. Acta Trop. 2016;164:36974. DOIPubMed
  12. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Guideline for evaluating insecticide resistance in vectors using the CDC bottle bioassay [cited 2017 Apr 12]. https://www.cdc.gov/malaria/resources/pdf/fsp/ir_manual/ir_cdc_bioassay_en.pdf

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Page created: September 17, 2019
Page updated: September 17, 2019
Page reviewed: September 17, 2019
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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