Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link
Volume 25, Number 5—May 2019
Research

Management of Central Nervous System Infections, Vientiane, Laos, 2003–2011

Audrey Dubot-PérèsComments to Author , Mayfong Mayxay, Rattanaphone Phetsouvanh1, Sue J. Lee, Sayaphet Rattanavong, Manivanh Vongsouvath, Viengmon Davong, Vilada Chansamouth, Koukeo Phommasone, Catrin Moore, Sabine Dittrich, Olay Lattana, Joy Sirisouk, Phonelavanh Phoumin, Phonepasith Panyanivong, Amphonesavanh Sengduangphachanh, Bountoy Sibounheuang, Anisone Chanthongthip, Manivone Simmalavong, Davanh Sengdatka, Amphaivanh Seubsanith, Valy Keoluangkot, Prasith Phimmasone, Kongkham Sisout, Khamsai Detleuxay, Khonesavanh Luangxay, Inpanh Phouangsouvanh, Scott B. Craig, Suhella M. Tulsiani, Mary-Anne Burns, David A.B. Dance, Stuart D. Blacksell, Xavier de Lamballerie, and Paul N. Newton
Author affiliations: Lao-Oxford-Mahosot Hospital-Wellcome Trust Research Unit, Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Laos (A. Dubot-Pérès, M. Mayxay, R. Phetsouvanh, S. Rattanavong, M. Vongsouvath, V. Davong, V. Chansamouth, K. Phommasone, C. Moore, S. Dittrich, O. Lattana, J. Sirisouk, P. Phoumin, P. Panyanivong, A. Sengduangphachanh, B. Sibounheuang, A. Chanthongthip, M. Simmalavong, D. Sengdatka, A. Seubsanith, D.A.B. Dance, P.N. Newton); University of Oxford Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine Center for Tropical Medicine and Global Health, Oxford, UK (A. Dubot-Pérès, S.J. Lee, C. Moore, S. Dittrich, D.A.B. Dance, S.D. Blacksell, P.N. Newton); Unité des Virus Émergents (UVE: Aix-Marseille Univ-IRD 190-INSERM 1207-IHU Méditerranée Infection), Marseille, France (A. Dubot-Pérès, X. de Lamballerie); University of Health Sciences Institute of Research and Education Development, Vientiane (M. Mayxay); Mahidol University Faculty of Tropical Medicine Mahidol– Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit, Bangkok, Thailand (S.J. Lee, S.D. Blacksell); Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane (V. Keoluangkot, P. Phimmasone, K. Sisout, K. Detleuxay, K. Luangxay, I. Phouangsouvanh); Queensland Health Forensic and Scientific Service World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Leptospirosis, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia (S.B. Craig, S.M. Tulsiani, M.-A. Burns); London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London, UK (D.A.B. Dance, P.N. Newton)

Main Article

Figure 1

WHO encephalitis and meningitis case definitions. *Definitions from WHO (18). †Defined here as Glasgow Coma Scale score <15. ‡Not “with sudden onset of fever >38.5°C” as recommended by the WHO because we saw patients, especially young children, with meningitis but with temperatures below the WHO temperature criterion. §Patients with history of fever or documented fever (>37.5°C). ¶History of neck stiffness or neck stiffness on examination. WHO, World Health Organization.

Figure 1. WHO encephalitis and meningitis case definitions. *Definitions from WHO (18). †Defined here as Glasgow Coma Scale score <15. ‡Not “with sudden onset of fever >38.5°C” as recommended by the WHO because we saw patients, especially young children, with meningitis but with temperatures below the WHO temperature criterion. §Patients with history of fever or documented fever (>37.5°C). ¶History of neck stiffness or neck stiffness on examination. WHO, World Health Organization.

Main Article

References
  1. Tarantola  A, Goutard  F, Newton  P, de Lamballerie  X, Lortholary  O, Cappelle  J, et al. Estimating the burden of Japanese encephalitis virus and other encephalitides in countries of the mekong region. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2014;8:e2533. DOIPubMed
  2. Glaser  CA, Gilliam  S, Schnurr  D, Forghani  B, Honarmand  S, Khetsuriani  N, et al.; California Encephalitis Project, 1998-2000. In search of encephalitis etiologies: diagnostic challenges in the California Encephalitis Project, 1998-2000. Clin Infect Dis. 2003;36:73142. DOIPubMed
  3. Glaser  CA, Honarmand  S, Anderson  LJ, Schnurr  DP, Forghani  B, Cossen  CK, et al. Beyond viruses: clinical profiles and etiologies associated with encephalitis. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;43:156577. DOIPubMed
  4. Dittrich  S, Rattanavong  S, Lee  SJ, Panyanivong  P, Craig  SB, Tulsiani  SM, et al. Orientia, rickettsia, and leptospira pathogens as causes of CNS infections in Laos: a prospective study. Lancet Glob Health. 2015;3:e10412. DOIPubMed
  5. World Health Organization. Japanese encephalitis. 2015 Dec 31 [cited 2018 Jun 6]. https://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/japanese-encephalitis
  6. Solomon  T, Dung  NM, Vaughn  DW, Kneen  R, Thao  LT, Raengsakulrach  B, et al. Neurological manifestations of dengue infection. Lancet. 2000;355:10539. DOIPubMed
  7. Puccioni-Sohler  M, Orsini  M, Soares  CN. Dengue: a new challenge for neurology. Neurol Int. 2012;4:e15. DOIPubMed
  8. Cam  BV, Fonsmark  L, Hue  NB, Phuong  NT, Poulsen  A, Heegaard  ED. Prospective case-control study of encephalopathy in children with dengue hemorrhagic fever. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2001;65:84851. DOIPubMed
  9. Hendarto  SK, Hadinegoro  SR. Dengue encephalopathy. Acta Paediatr Jpn. 1992;34:3507. DOIPubMed
  10. Ho Dang Trung  N, Le Thi Phuong  T, Wolbers  M, Nguyen Van Minh  H, Nguyen Thanh  V, Van  MP, et al.; VIZIONS CNS Infection Network. Aetiologies of central nervous system infection in Viet Nam: a prospective provincial hospital-based descriptive surveillance study. PLoS One. 2012;7:e37825. DOIPubMed
  11. Flett  KB, Rao  S, Dominguez  SR, Bernard  T, Glode  MP. Variability in the diagnosis of encephalitis by pediatric subspecialists: the need for a uniform definition. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2013;2:2679. DOIPubMed
  12. Xie  Y, Tan  Y, Chongsuvivatwong  V, Wu  X, Bi  F, Hadler  SC, et al. A population-based acute meningitis and encephalitis syndromes surveillance in Guangxi, China, May 2007-June 2012. PLoS One. 2015;10:e0144366. DOIPubMed
  13. Touch  S, Hills  S, Sokhal  B, Samnang  C, Sovann  L, Khieu  V, et al. Epidemiology and burden of disease from Japanese encephalitis in Cambodia: results from two years of sentinel surveillance. Trop Med Int Health. 2009;14:136573. DOIPubMed
  14. Olsen  SJ, Campbell  AP, Supawat  K, Liamsuwan  S, Chotpitayasunondh  T, Laptikulthum  S, et al.; Thailand Encephalitis Surveillance Team. Infectious causes of encephalitis and meningoencephalitis in Thailand, 2003-2005. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21:2809. DOIPubMed
  15. Dittrich  S, Sunyakumthorn  P, Rattanavong  S, Phetsouvanh  R, Panyanivong  P, Sengduangphachanh  A, et al. Blood-brain barrier function and biomarkers of central nervous system injury in rickettsial versus other neurological infections in Laos. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2015;93:2327. DOIPubMed
  16. Moore  CE, Sengduangphachanh  A, Thaojaikong  T, Sirisouk  J, Foster  D, Phetsouvanh  R, et al. Enhanced determination of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes associated with invasive disease in Laos by using a real-time polymerase chain reaction serotyping assay with cerebrospinal fluid. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010;83:4517. DOIPubMed
  17. Moore  CE, Blacksell  SD, Taojaikong  T, Jarman  RG, Gibbons  RV, Lee  SJ, et al. A prospective assessment of the accuracy of commercial IgM ELISAs in diagnosis of Japanese encephalitis virus infections in patients with suspected central nervous system infections in Laos. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2012;87:1718. DOIPubMed
  18. World Health Organization. Recommended standards for surveillance of selected vaccine-preventable diseases. 2003 [cited 2018 Jun 6]. http://www.measlesrubellainitiative.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/WHO-surveillance-standard.pdf
  19. Thaipadungpanit  J, Chierakul  W, Wuthiekanun  V, Limmathurotsakul  D, Amornchai  P, Boonslip  S, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of real-time PCR assays targeting 16S rRNA and lipL32 genes for human leptospirosis in Thailand: a case-control study. PLoS One. 2011;6:e16236. DOIPubMed
  20. Cole  JR Jr, Sulzer  CR, Pursell  AR. Improved microtechnique for the leptospiral microscopic agglutination test. Appl Microbiol. 1973;25:97680.PubMed
  21. Jiang  J, Chan  T-C, Temenak  JJ, Dasch  GA, Ching  W-M, Richards  AL. Development of a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay specific for Orientia tsutsugamushi. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2004;70:3516. DOIPubMed
  22. Jiang  J, Stromdahl  EY, Richards  AL. Detection of Rickettsia parkeri and Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae in Amblyomma maculatum Gulf Coast ticks collected from humans in the United States. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2012;12:17582. DOIPubMed
  23. Henry  KM, Jiang  J, Rozmajzl  PJ, Azad  AF, Macaluso  KR, Richards  AL. Development of quantitative real-time PCR assays to detect Rickettsia typhi and Rickettsia felis, the causative agents of murine typhus and flea-borne spotted fever. Mol Cell Probes. 2007;21:1723. DOIPubMed
  24. Phetsouvanh  R, Blacksell  SD, Jenjaroen  K, Day  NPJ, Newton  PN. Comparison of indirect immunofluorescence assays for diagnosis of scrub typhus and murine typhus using venous blood and finger prick filter paper blood spots. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2009;80:83740. DOIPubMed
  25. Carvalho  MG, Tondella  ML, McCaustland  K, Weidlich  L, McGee  L, Mayer  LW, et al. Evaluation and improvement of real-time PCR assays targeting lytA, ply, and psaA genes for detection of pneumococcal DNA. J Clin Microbiol. 2007;45:24606. DOIPubMed
  26. Corless  CE, Guiver  M, Borrow  R, Edwards-Jones  V, Fox  AJ, Kaczmarski  EB. Simultaneous detection of Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, and Streptococcus pneumoniae in suspected cases of meningitis and septicemia using real-time PCR. J Clin Microbiol. 2001;39:15538. DOIPubMed
  27. Mai  NTH, Hoa  NT, Nga  TVT, Linh  D, Chau  TTH, Sinh  DX, et al. Streptococcus suis meningitis in adults in Vietnam. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;46:65967. DOIPubMed
  28. Leparc-Goffart  I, Baragatti  M, Temmam  S, Tuiskunen  A, Moureau  G, Charrel  R, et al. Development and validation of real-time one-step reverse transcription-PCR for the detection and typing of dengue viruses. J Clin Virol. 2009;45:616. DOIPubMed
  29. Watkins-Riedel  T, Woegerbauer  M, Hollemann  D, Hufnagl  P. Rapid diagnosis of enterovirus infections by real-time PCR on the LightCycler using the TaqMan format. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2002;42:99105. DOIPubMed
  30. Lanciotti  RS, Kerst  AJ, Nasci  RS, Godsey  MS, Mitchell  CJ, Savage  HM, et al. Rapid detection of west nile virus from human clinical specimens, field-collected mosquitoes, and avian samples by a TaqMan reverse transcriptase-PCR assay. J Clin Microbiol. 2000;38:406671.PubMed
  31. van Elden  LJ, Nijhuis  M, Schipper  P, Schuurman  R, van Loon  AM. Simultaneous detection of influenza viruses A and B using real-time quantitative PCR. J Clin Microbiol. 2001;39:196200. DOIPubMed
  32. Moureau  G, Temmam  S, Gonzalez  JP, Charrel  RN, Grard  G, de Lamballerie  X. A real-time RT-PCR method for the universal detection and identification of flaviviruses. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2007;7:46777. DOIPubMed
  33. Moureau  G, Ninove  L, Izri  A, Cook  S, De Lamballerie  X, Charrel  RN. Flavivirus RNA in phlebotomine sandflies. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2010;10:1957. DOIPubMed
  34. Kessler  HH, Mühlbauer  G, Rinner  B, Stelzl  E, Berger  A, Dörr  HW, et al. Detection of Herpes simplex virus DNA by real-time PCR. J Clin Microbiol. 2000;38:263842.PubMed
  35. Bousbia  S, Papazian  L, Saux  P, Forel  JM, Auffray  J-P, Martin  C, et al. Repertoire of intensive care unit pneumonia microbiota. PLoS One. 2012;7:e32486. DOIPubMed
  36. Griscelli  F, Barrois  M, Chauvin  S, Lastere  S, Bellet  D, Bourhis  JH. Quantification of human cytomegalovirus DNA in bone marrow transplant recipients by real-time PCR. J Clin Microbiol. 2001;39:43629. DOIPubMed
  37. Hummel  KB, Lowe  L, Bellini  WJ, Rota  PA. Development of quantitative gene-specific real-time RT-PCR assays for the detection of measles virus in clinical specimens. J Virol Methods. 2006;132:16673. DOIPubMed
  38. Uchida  K, Shinohara  M, Shimada  S, Segawa  Y, Doi  R, Gotoh  A, et al. Rapid and sensitive detection of mumps virus RNA directly from clinical samples by real-time PCR. J Med Virol. 2005;75:4704. DOIPubMed
  39. Phommasone  K, Paris  DH, Anantatat  T, Castonguay-Vanier  J, Keomany  S, Souvannasing  P, et al. Concurrent Infection with murine typhus and scrub typhus in southern Laos—the mixed and the unmixed. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7:e2163. DOIPubMed
  40. White  IR, Royston  P, Wood  AM. Multiple imputation using chained equations: Issues and guidance for practice. Stat Med. 2011;30:37799. DOIPubMed
  41. Rubin  DB. Multiple imputation for nonresponse in surveys. New York: John Wiley and Sons; 1987.
  42. Sejvar  JJ, Kohl  KS, Gidudu  J, Amato  A, Bakshi  N, Baxter  R, et al.; Brighton Collaboration GBS Working Group. Guillain-Barré syndrome and Fisher syndrome: case definitions and guidelines for collection, analysis, and presentation of immunization safety data. Vaccine. 2011;29:599612. DOIPubMed
  43. Bennett  JE, Dolin  R, Blaser  MJ. Principles and practice of infectious diseases. 8th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders; 2014.
  44. Dubot-Pérès  A, Sengvilaipaseuth  O, Chanthongthip  A, Newton  PN, de Lamballerie  X. How many patients with anti-JEV IgM in cerebrospinal fluid really have Japanese encephalitis? Lancet Infect Dis. 2015;15:13767. DOIPubMed
  45. Eamsobhana  P. Angiostrongyliasis in Thailand: epidemiology and laboratory investigations. Hawaii J Med Public Health. 2013;72(Suppl 2):2832.PubMed
  46. Newman  MP, Blum  S, Wong  RCW, Scott  JG, Prain  K, Wilson  RJ, et al. Autoimmune encephalitis. Intern Med J. 2016;46:14857. DOIPubMed
  47. Taylor  WR, Nguyen  K, Nguyen  D, Nguyen  H, Horby  P, Nguyen  HL, et al. The spectrum of central nervous system infections in an adult referral hospital in Hanoi, Vietnam. PLoS One. 2012;7:e42099. DOIPubMed
  48. Schut  ES, Westendorp  WF, de Gans  J, Kruyt  ND, Spanjaard  L, Reitsma  JB, et al. Hyperglycemia in bacterial meningitis: a prospective cohort study. BMC Infect Dis. 2009;9:57. DOIPubMed
  49. Erdem  H, Ozturk-Engin  D, Tireli  H, Kilicoglu  G, Defres  S, Gulsun  S, et al. Hamsi scoring in the prediction of unfavorable outcomes from tuberculous meningitis: results of Haydarpasa-II study. J Neurol. 2015;262:8908. DOIPubMed
  50. Blaha  J, Barteczko-Grajek  B, Berezowicz  P, Charvat  J, Chvojka  J, Grau  T, et al. Space GlucoseControl system for blood glucose control in intensive care patients—a European multicentre observational study. BMC Anesthesiol. 2016;16:8. DOIPubMed

Main Article

1Deceased.

Page created: April 17, 2019
Page updated: April 17, 2019
Page reviewed: April 17, 2019
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
file_external