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Volume 26, Number 1—January 2020

Paid Leave and Access to Telework as Work Attendance Determinants during Acute Respiratory Illness, United States, 2017–2018

Faruque Ahmed1Comments to Author , Sara Kim, Mary Patricia Nowalk, Jennifer P. King, Jeffrey J. VanWormer, Manjusha Gaglani, Richard K. Zimmerman, Todd Bear, Michael L. Jackson, Lisa A. Jackson, Emily Martin, Caroline Cheng, Brendan Flannery, Jessie R. Chung, and Amra Uzicanin
Author affiliations: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA (F. Ahmed, S. Kim, B. Flannery, J.R. Chung, A. Uzicanin); University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA (M.P. Nowalk, R.K. Zimmerman, T. Bear); Marshfield Clinic Research Institute, Marshfield, Wisconsin, USA (J.P. King, J.J. VanWormer); Texas A&M University, Temple, Texas, USA (M. Gaglani); Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute, Seattle, Washington, USA (M.L. Jackson, L.A. Jackson); University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA (E. Martin, C. Cheng)

Main Article

Table 4

Adjusted analysis to assess the association with days worked during the first 3 days of illness, United States, 2017–18 influenza season, by laboratory-confirmed influenza*

Total days worked

Days worked at the usual workplace
Influenza positive, n = 464
Influenza negative, n = 839
Influenza positive, n = 464
Influenza negative, n = 839
Access to telework
No Referent Referent Referent Referent
1.46 (1.09–1.96)†
1.19 (0.991.43)

1.15 (0.831.60)
0.92 (0.751.14)
Access to paid leave
No Referent Referent Referent Referent
0.81 (0.571.14)
0.82 (0.681.00)

0.79 (0.551.12)
0.83 (0.681.02)
Discouraged from coming to work with influenza-like symptoms
Not agree Referent Referent Referent Referent
Agree 0.71 (0.55–0.91)‡ 0.92 (0.801.06)
0.72 (0.55–0.94)† 0.90 (0.781.05)

*Data are presented as adjusted ratios of days worked (95% confidence interval), unless otherwise indicated. Boldface indicates statistical significance. The dependent variable in the zero-inflated Poisson regressions was the number of days worked during the first 3 days of illness. The final models contained the following independent variables: access to telework; access to paid leave; employees are discouraged from coming to work when they have influenza-like symptoms; age; sex; education; fever; worked the day before illness; having a lot of control over taking days off for illnesses; full-time worker; and employee type. Sixty-eight records were excluded because of missing values, and an additional 3 records were excluded because laboratory confirmation of influenza by real-time reverse transcription PCR was not available.

Main Article

1Preliminary results from this study were presented at the International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases, August 2729, 2018, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Page created: December 18, 2019
Page updated: December 18, 2019
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