Volume 27, Number 1—January 2021
Estimate of Burden and Direct Healthcare Cost of Infectious Waterborne Disease in the United States
|Active surveillance data (name of surveillance system)||Passive surveillance data||Administrative data|
|Campylobacteriosis (FoodNet)||Giardiasis (NNDSS)||NTM infection (HCUP NEDS/NIS)|
|Cryptosporidiosis (FoodNet)||Legionnaires’ disease (NNDSS)||Otitis externa (NAMCS, HCUP NEDS/NIS)|
|Norovirus (20,21)||Vibrio spp. infection (COVIS)||Pseudomonas pneumonia (HCUP NEDS/NIS)|
|Salmonellosis, nontyphoidal (FoodNet)||Vibrio alginolyticus infection (COVIS)||Pseudomonas septicemia (HCUP NEDS/NIS)|
|STEC infection, O157 (FoodNet)||Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection (COVIS)|
|STEC infection, non-O157 (FoodNet)||Vibrio vulnificus infection (COVIS)|
|Shigellosis (FoodNet)||Other Vibrio infection (COVIS)|
*COVIS, Cholera and Other Vibrio Illness Surveillance; FoodNet, Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network; HCUP NEDS/NIS, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project’s National Emergency Department Sample and National Inpatient Sample; NAMCS, National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey; NNDSS, National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System; NTM, nontuberculous mycobacterial; STEC, Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli.
- Armstrong GL, Conn LA, Pinner RW. Trends in infectious disease mortality in the United States during the 20th century. JAMA. 1999;281:61–6.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Achievements in public health, 1900–1999: control of infectious diseases. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1999;48:621–9.
- Benedict KM, Reses H, Vigar M, Roth DM, Roberts VA, Mattioli M, et al. Surveillance for waterborne disease outbreaks associated with drinking water—United States, 2013–2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2017;66:1216–21.
- McClung RP, Roth DM, Vigar M, Roberts VA, Kahler AM, Cooley LA, et al. Waterborne disease outbreaks associated with environmental and undetermined exposures to water—United States, 2013–2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2017;66:1222–5.
- Hlavsa MC, Cikesh BL, Roberts VA, Kahler AM, Vigar M, Hilborn ED, et al. Outbreaks associated with treated recreational water—United States, 2000–2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018;67:547–51.
- Craun GF, Brunkard JM, Yoder JS, Roberts VA, Carpenter J, Wade T, et al. Causes of outbreaks associated with drinking water in the United States from 1971 to 2006. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2010;23:507–28.
- Dieter CA, Maupin MA, Caldwell RR, Harris MA, Ivahnenko TI. Estimated use of water in the United States in 2015. US Geological Survey; 2018 [cited 2020 Sep 24].
- US Environmental Protection Agency. Community water system survey 2000. Volume 1: overview. 2002 [cited 2020 Sep 24]. https://nepis.epa.gov/Exe/tiff2png.cgi/20001ZK5.PNG?-r+75+-g+7+D%3A%5CZYFILES%5CINDEX%20DATA%5C00THRU05%5CTIFF%5C00000455%5C20001ZK5.TIF
- US National Research Council. Committee on Public Water Supply Distribution Systems: Water Science and Technology Board. Drinking water distribution systems: assessing and reducing risks. Washington (DC): National Academies Press; 2006.
- Falkinham JO III, Hilborn ED, Arduino MJ, Pruden A, Edwards MA. Epidemiology and ecology of opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens: Legionella pneumophila, Mycobacterium avium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Environ Health Perspect. 2015;123:749–58.
- Shields JM, Hill VR, Arrowood MJ, Beach MJ. Inactivation of Cryptosporidium parvum under chlorinated recreational water conditions. J Water Health. 2008;6:513–20.
- Chappell CL, Okhuysen PC, Langer-Curry R, Widmer G, Akiyoshi DE, Tanriverdi S, et al. Cryptosporidium hominis: experimental challenge of healthy adults. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006;75:851–7.
- Paranjpye RN, Nilsson WB, Liermann M, Hilborn ED, George BJ, Li Q, et al. Environmental influences on the seasonal distribution of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in the Pacific Northwest of the USA. FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2015;91:
- Scallan E, Hoekstra RM, Angulo FJ, Tauxe RV, Widdowson MA, Roy SL, et al. Foodborne illness acquired in the United States—major pathogens. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:7–15.
- Scallan E, Griffin PM, Angulo FJ, Tauxe RV, Hoekstra RM. Foodborne illness acquired in the United States—unspecified agents. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:16–22.
- Colford JM Jr, Roy S, Beach MJ, Hightower A, Shaw SE, Wade TJ. A review of household drinking water intervention trials and an approach to the estimation of endemic waterborne gastroenteritis in the United States. J Water Health. 2006;4(Suppl 2):71–88.
- Messner M, Shaw S, Regli S, Rotert K, Blank V, Soller J. An approach for developing a national estimate of waterborne disease due to drinking water and a national estimate model application. J Water Health. 2006;4(Suppl 2):201–40.
- Reynolds KA, Mena KD, Gerba CP. Risk of waterborne illness via drinking water in the United States. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol. 2008;192:117–58.
- DeFlorio-Barker S, Wade TJ, Jones RM, Friedman LS, Wing C, Dorevitch S. Estimated costs of sporadic gastrointestinal illness associated with surface water recreation: a combined analysis of data from NEEAR and CHEERS studies. Environ Health Perspect. 2017;125:215–22.
- Grytdal SP, DeBess E, Lee LE, Blythe D, Ryan P, Biggs C, et al. Incidence of norovirus and other viral pathogens that cause acute gastroenteritis (AGE) among Kaiser Permanente member populations in the United States, 2012–2013. PLoS One. 2016;11:
- Hall AJ, Rosenthal M, Gregoricus N, Greene SA, Ferguson J, Henao OL, et al. Incidence of acute gastroenteritis and role of norovirus, Georgia, USA, 2004-2005. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:1381–8.
- Mead PS, Slutsker L, Dietz V, McCaig LF, Bresee JS, Shapiro C, et al. Food-related illness and death in the United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999;5:607–25.
- Scallan E, Griffin PM, McLean HQ, Mahon BE. Hospitalisations due to bacterial gastroenteritis: A comparison of surveillance and hospital discharge data. Epidemiol Infect. 2018;146:954–60.
- Gargano JW, Adam EA, Collier SA, Fullerton KE, Feinman SJ, Beach MJ. Mortality from selected diseases that can be transmitted by water - United States, 2003-2009. J Water Health. 2017;15:438–50.
- Beshearse E, Bruce BB, Nane GF, Cooke RM, Aspinall W, Hald T, et al. Using structured expert judgment for attribution of foodborne and waterborne illnesses to comprehensive transmission pathways, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 Jan [in press].
- Aspinall WP, Cooke RM, Havelaar AH, Hoffmann S, Hald T. Evaluation of a performance-based expert elicitation: WHO global attribution of foodborne diseases. PLoS One. 2016;11:
- Cooke RM, Goossens LHJ; European Commission Directorate-General for Research and Innovation. Procedures guide for structured expert judgement. Brussels: Directorate-General for Research; 2000.
- Vose D. Risk analysis: a quantitative guide. 3rd ed. Hoboken (NJ): Wiley; 2008.
- R Core Team. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna: R Foundation for Statistical Computing; 2018.
- Adam EA, Collier SA, Fullerton KE, Gargano JW, Beach MJ. Prevalence and direct costs of emergency department visits and hospitalizations for selected diseases that can be transmitted by water, United States. J Water Health. 2017;15:673–83.
- Collier SA, Stockman LJ, Hicks LA, Garrison LE, Zhou FJ, Beach MJ. Direct healthcare costs of selected diseases primarily or partially transmitted by water. Epidemiol Infect. 2012;140:2003–13.
- Prüss-Ustün A, Bos R, Gore F, Bartram J; World Health Organization. Safer water, better health: costs, benefits and sustainability of interventions to protect and promote health. Geneva: The Organization; 2008.
- Gibney KB, O’Toole J, Sinclair M, Leder K. Burden of disease attributed to waterborne transmission of selected enteric pathogens, Australia, 2010. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2017;96:1400–3.
- Murphy HM, Thomas MK, Medeiros DT, McFADYEN S, Pintar KD. Estimating the number of cases of acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI) associated with Canadian municipal drinking water systems. Epidemiol Infect. 2016;144:1371–85.
- Murphy HM, Thomas MK, Schmidt PJ, Medeiros DT, McFADYEN S, Pintar KD. Estimating the burden of acute gastrointestinal illness due to Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Campylobacter, E. coli O157 and norovirus associated with private wells and small water systems in Canada. Epidemiol Infect. 2016;144:1355–70.
- Cassini A, Colzani E, Kramarz P, Kretzschmar ME, Takkinen J. Impact of food and water-borne diseases on European population health. Curr Opin Food Sci. 2016;12:21–9.
- Collier SA, Wade TJ, Sams EA, Hlavsa MC, Dufour AP, Beach MJ. Swimming in the USA: beachgoer characteristics and health outcomes at US marine and freshwater beaches. J Water Health. 2015;13:531–43.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Cryptosporidiosis summary report—National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, United States, 2017; 2019 [cited 2020 Sep 24]. https://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/surveillance/pdf/2017-Cryptosporidiosis-NNDSS-Report-508.pdf
- Scallan E, Scallan E. Activities, achievements, and lessons learned during the first 10 years of the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network: 1996-2005. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;44:718–25.