Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link
Volume 27, Number 3—March 2021

Evaluation of National Event-Based Surveillance, Nigeria, 2016–2018

Kazim BeebeejaunComments to Author , James Elston, Isabel Oliver, Adachioma Ihueze, Chika Ukenedo, Olusola Aruna, Favour Makava, Ejezie Obiefuna, Womi Eteng, Mercy Niyang, Ebere Okereke, Bola Gobir, Elsie Ilori, Olubunmi Ojo, and Chikwe Ihekweazu
Author affiliations: Public Health England, London, UK (K. Beebeejaun, J. Elson, I. Oliver, O. Aruna, E. Okereke); University of Maryland Baltimore, Abuja, Nigeria (A. Ihueze, C. Ukenedo, F. Makava, M. Niyang, B. Gobir); Nigeria Centre for Disease Control, Abuja (E. Obiefuna, W. Eteng, E. Ilori, O. Ojo, C. Ihekweazu)

Main Article

Table 1

Definition for terms used in evaluation of national event-based surveillance, Nigeria, 2016–2018*

Term Definition
Raw signal
Communication received or retrieved from EBS system that contains data with potential to meet the WHO definition 
for a signal (7)
Raw signal reviewed by EBS technical staff who considered the signal to represent a potential acute risk to 
human health requiring investigation 
or verification according to
 the WHO definition†
Signal cluster
Group of signals detected by EBS system relating to same disease or syndrome and occurring within ±2 d in the same state
Escalated signal
A signal escalated and recorded by EBS technical staff to a senior surveillance officer for investigation and verification
Senior surveillance officer
Nominated member of the surveillance team responsible for investigating and verifying escalated signals
A signal verified by SSO and surveillance team as an event that has potential 
for disease spread
*Terminology listed in order of appearance during EBS monitoring. EBS, event-based surveillance; SSO, senior surveillance officer; WHO, World Health Organization.
†WHO definition states: Data and/or information considered by the Early Warning and Response system as representing a potential acute risk to human health. Signals may consist of reports of cases or deaths (individual or aggregated), potential exposure of human beings to biological, chemical, or radiological and nuclear hazards, or occurrence of natural or man-made disasters (7).

Main Article

  1. Chretien  J-P, Lewis  SH. Electronic public health surveillance in developing settings: meeting summary. BMC Proc. 2008;2 Suppl 3(Suppl 3):S1.
  2. Heymann  DL, Rodier  GR; WHO Operational Support Team to the Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network. Hot spots in a wired world: WHO surveillance of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases. Lancet Infect Dis. 2001;1:34553. DOIPubMed
  3. Butler  D. Disease surveillance needs a revolution. Nature. 2006;440:67. DOIPubMed
  4. World Health Organization. International health regulations (2005) [cited 2020 Aug 8].
  5. United Nations Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. Africa Centres for Disease Control and Prevention and partners plan new approach to detect and respond to outbreaks: press release 21 Jun 2017 [cited 2020 Aug 8].
  6. Hii  A, Chughtai  AA, Housen  T, Saketa  S, Kunasekaran  MP, Sulaiman  F, et al. Epidemic intelligence needs of stakeholders in the Asia-Pacific region. Western Pac Surveill Response J. 2018;9:2836. DOIPubMed
  7. World Health Organization. Early detection, assessment and response to acute public health events: implementation of early warning and response with a focus on event-based surveillance [cited 2020 Aug 8].
  8. Ratnayake  R, Crowe  SJ, Jasperse  J, Privette  G, Stone  E, Miller  L, et al. Assessment of community event-based surveillance for Ebola virus disease, Sierra Leone, 2015. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22:14317. DOIPubMed
  9. Toyama  Y, Ota  M, Beyene  BB. Event-based surveillance in north-western Ethiopia: experience and lessons learnt in the field. Western Pac Surveill Response J. 2015;6:227. DOIPubMed
  10. Stone  E, Miller  L, Jasperse  J, Privette  G, Diez Beltran  JC, Jambai  A, et al. Community event-based surveillance for Ebola virus disease in Sierra Leone: implementation of a national-level system during a crisis. PLoS Curr. 2016;8:ecurrents.outbreaks.d119c71125b5cce312b9700d744c56d8.
  11. Fall  IS, Rajatonirina  S, Yahaya  AA, Zabulon  Y, Nsubuga  P, Nanyunja  M, et al. Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) strategy: current status, challenges and perspectives for the future in Africa. BMJ Glob Health. 2019;4:e001427. DOIPubMed
  12. Africa Centres for Disease Control and Prevention. Africa CDC strategic plan 2017–2021 [cited 2020 Aug 8].
  13. German  RR, Lee  LM, Horan  JM, Milstein  RL, Pertowski  CA, Waller  MN; Guidelines Working Group Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Updated guidelines for evaluating public health surveillance systems: recommendations from the Guidelines Working Group. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2001;50(RR-13):135, quiz CE1–7.PubMed
  14. Nigerian Federal Ministry of Health. Technical guidelines for integrated disease surveillance and response in Nigeria [cited 2020 Aug 8].
  15. Ethnologue. Languages of Nigeria 2017 [cited 2020 Aug 8].
  16. Alruily  M. A review on event-based epidemic surveillance systems that support the Arabic language. Int J Adv Comput Sci. 2018;9:7118. DOI
  17. Salzburg Global Seminar. Finding outbreaks faster: how do we measure progress? Session 613; 2018 Nov 4–8 [cited 2020 Aug 8].

Main Article

Page created: December 29, 2020
Page updated: February 21, 2021
Page reviewed: February 21, 2021
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.