Volume 27, Number 3—March 2021
Mycoplasma genitalium and Other Reproductive Tract Infections in Pregnant Women, Papua New Guinea, 2015–2017
- Newman L, Rowley J, Vander Hoorn S, Wijesooriya NS, Unemo M, Low N, et al. Global estimates of the prevalence and incidence of four curable sexually transmitted infections in 2012 based on systematic review and global reporting. PLoS One. 2015;10:
- World Health Organization. Report on global sexually transmitted infection surveillance, 2018. 2018 [cited 2019 Dec 9]. https://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/publications/stis-surveillance-2018
- Rowley J, Vander Hoorn S, Korenromp E, Low N, Unemo M, Abu-Raddad LJ, et al. Chlamydia, gonorrhoea, trichomoniasis and syphilis: global prevalence and incidence estimates, 2016. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2019;97:548–62, 62A–62P.
- van de Wijgert JHHM, Jespers V. The global health impact of vaginal dysbiosis. Res Microbiol. 2017;168:859–64.
- Peebles K, Velloza J, Balkus JE, McClelland RS, Barnabas RV. High global burden and costs of bacterial vaginosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sex Transm Dis. 2019;46:304–11.
- Cauchie M, Desmet S, Lagrou K. Candida and its dual lifestyle as a commensal and a pathogen. Res Microbiol. 2017;168:802–10.
- Donovan B. Sexually transmissible infections other than HIV. Lancet. 2004;363:545–56.
- Arol OA, Over M, Manhard L, Holmes KK. Sexually transmitted infections. In: Jamison DT, Breman JG, Measham AR, Alleyne G, Claeson M, Evans DB, et al., editors. Disease control priorities in developing countries. 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press; 2006. p. 315
- Thwaites A, Flanagan K, Datta S. Non-HIV sexually transmitted infections in pregnancy. Obstetrics, Gynaecol Reprod Med. 2019;29:151–7.
- Martin DH, Manhart LE, Workowski KA. Mycoplasma genitalium From Basic Science to Public Health: Summary of the Results From a National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disesases Technical Consultation and Consensus Recommendations for Future Research Priorities. J Infect Dis. 2017;216(suppl_2):S427–30.
- Lis R, Rowhani-Rahbar A, Manhart LE. Mycoplasma genitalium infection and female reproductive tract disease: a meta-analysis. Clin Infect Dis. 2015;61:418–26.
- Sonnenberg P, Ison CA, Clifton S, Field N, Tanton C, Soldan K, et al. Epidemiology of Mycoplasma genitalium in British men and women aged 16–44 years: evidence from the third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3). Int J Epidemiol. 2015;44:1982–94.
- Baumann L, Cina M, Egli-Gany D, Goutaki M, Halbeisen FS, Lohrer G-R, et al. Prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium in different population groups: systematic review andmeta-analysis. Sex Transm Infect. 2018;94:255–62.
- Oakeshott P, Hay P, Taylor-Robinson D, Hay S, Dohn B, Kerry S, et al. Prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium in early pregnancy and relationship between its presence and pregnancy outcome. BJOG. 2004;111:1464–7.
- Harrison MA, Harding-Esch EM, Marks M, Pond MJ, Butcher R, Solomon AW, et al. Impact of mass drug administration of azithromycin for trachoma elimination on prevalence and azithromycin resistance of genital Mycoplasma genitalium infection. Sex Transm Infect. 2019;95:522–8.
- Machalek DA, Tao Y, Shilling H, Jensen JS, Unemo M, Murray G, et al. Prevalence of mutations associated with resistance to macrolides and fluoroquinolones in Mycoplasma genitalium: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2020;20:1302–14.
- The World Bank Group. Papua New Guinea. 2019 [cited 2020 Feb 25]. https://data.worldbank.org/country/papua-new-guinea
- National Statistical Office of Papua New Guinea; ICF International, Inc. Papua New Guinea demographic and health survey 2016–18. 2019 [cited 2020 Aug 10]. https://www.nso.gov.pg/census-surveys/demographic-and-health-survey
- Robbers G, Vogel JP, Mola G, Bolgna J, Homer CSE. Maternal and newborn health indicators in Papua New Guinea - 2008-2018. Sex Reprod Health Matters. 2019;27:
- Vallely LM, Toliman P, Ryan C, Rai G, Wapling J, Tomado C, et al. Prevalence and risk factors of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis and other sexually transmissible infections among women attending antenatal clinics in three provinces in Papua New Guinea: a cross-sectional survey. Sex Health. 2016;13:420–7.
- Mola G, Amoa A, Bagita M, Augerea L, Geita L, O’Connor M. Manual of standard managements in obstetrics and gynaecology for doctors, HEOs and nurses in Papua New Guinea. 7th ed. Port Moresby (Papua New Guinea): World Health Organization; 2016. p. 10, 94.
- National Department of Health. Standard treatment guidelines for common illness of adults in Papua New Guinea. 6th ed. Port Moresby (Papua New Guinea): World Health Organization; 2012. p. 41–2.
- Vallely A, Page A, Dias S, Siba P, Lupiwa T, Law G, et al. The prevalence of sexually transmitted infections in Papua New Guinea: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2010;5:
- Golden MR, Workowski KA, Bolan G. Developing a public health response to Mycoplasma genitalium. J Infect Dis. 2017;216(suppl_2):S420–6.
- Jensen JS, Cusini M, Gomberg M, Moi H. 2016 European guideline on Mycoplasma genitalium infections. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2016;30:1650–6.
- Donders GGG, Ruban K, Bellen G, Petricevic L. Mycoplasma/Ureaplasma infection in pregnancy: to screen or not to screen. J Perinat Med. 2017;45:505–15.
- Deborde M, Pereyre S, Puges M, Bébéar C, Desclaux A, Hessamfar M, et al. High prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium infection and macrolide resistance in patients enrolled in HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis program. Med Mal Infect. 2019;49:347–9.
- Hoffman CM, Mbambazela N, Sithole P, Morré SA, Dubbink JH, Railton J, et al. Provision of sexually transmitted infection services in a mobile clinic reveals high unmet need in remote areas of South Africa: a cross-sectional study. Sex Transm Dis. 2019;46:206–12.
- Cohen CR, Nosek M, Meier A, Astete SG, Iverson-Cabral S, Mugo NR, et al. Mycoplasma genitalium infection and persistence in a cohort of female sex workers in Nairobi, Kenya. Sex Transm Dis. 2007;34:274–9.
- Vandepitte J, Muller E, Bukenya J, Nakubulwa S, Kyakuwa N, Buvé A, et al. Prevalence and correlates of Mycoplasma genitalium infection among female sex workers in Kampala, Uganda. J Infect Dis. 2012;205:289–96.
- Peuchant O, Le Roy C, Desveaux C, Paris A, Asselineau J, Maldonado C, et al. Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Mycoplasma genitalium should it be integrated into routine pregnancy care in French young pregnant women? Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2015;82:14–9.
- Labbé AC, Frost E, Deslandes S, Mendonça AP, Alves AC, Pépin J. Mycoplasma genitalium is not associated with adverse outcomes of pregnancy in Guinea-Bissau. Sex Transm Infect. 2002;78:289–91.
- Joshua IB, Passmore PR, Sunderland BV. An evaluation of the Essential Medicines List, Standard Treatment Guidelines and prescribing restrictions, as an integrated strategy to enhance quality, efficacy and safety of and improve access to essential medicines in Papua New Guinea. Health Policy Plan. 2016;31:538–46.
- Wangnapi RA, Soso S, Unger HW, Sawera C, Ome M, Umbers AJ, et al. Prevalence and risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Trichomonas vaginalis infection in pregnant women in Papua New Guinea. Sex Transm Infect. 2015;91:194–200.
- Badman SG, Vallely LM, Toliman P, Kariwiga G, Lote B, Pomat W, et al. A novel point-of-care testing strategy for sexually transmitted infections among pregnant women in high-burden settings: results of a feasibility study in Papua New Guinea. BMC Infect Dis. 2016;16:250.
- Marks M, Kako H, Butcher R, Lauri B, Puiahi E, Pitakaka R, et al. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections in female clinic attendees in Honiara, Solomon Islands. BMJ Open. 2015;5:
- Vallely LM, Toliman P, Ryan C, Rai G, Wapling J, Gabuzzi J, et al. Performance of syndromic management for the detection and treatment of genital Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Trichomonas vaginalis among women attending antenatal, well woman and sexual health clinics in Papua New Guinea: a cross-sectional study. BMJ Open. 2017;7:
- Unger HW, Ome-Kaius M, Wangnapi RA, Umbers AJ, Hanieh S, Suen CSNLW, et al. Sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine plus azithromycin for the prevention of low birthweight in Papua New Guinea: a randomised controlled trial. BMC Med. 2015;13:9.
- Peters RPH, Dubbink JH, van der Eem L, Verweij SP, Bos MLA, Ouburg S, et al. Cross-sectional study of genital, rectal, and pharyngeal Chlamydia and gonorrhea in women in rural South Africa. Sex Transm Dis. 2014;41:564–9.
- Moodley D, Moodley P, Sebitloane M, Soowamber D, McNaughton-Reyes HL, Groves AK, et al. High prevalence and incidence of asymptomatic sexually transmitted infections during pregnancy and postdelivery in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa. Sex Transm Dis. 2015;42:43–7.
- Pappas PG, Kauffman CA, Andes D, Benjamin DK Jr, Calandra TF, Edwards JE Jr, et al.; Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clinical practice guidelines for the management of candidiasis: 2009 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;48:503–35.
- Klufio CA, Amoa AB, Delamare O, Hombhanje M, Kariwiga G, Igo J. Prevalence of vaginal infections with bacterial vaginosis, Trichomonas vaginalis and Candida albicans among pregnant women at the Port Moresby General Hospital Antenatal Clinic. P N G Med J. 1995;38:163–71.
- Sobel JD. Vulvovaginal candidosis. Lancet. 2007;369:1961–71.
- Lavu EK, Johnson K, Banamu J, Pandey S, Carter R, Coulter C, et al. Drug-resistant tuberculosis diagnosis since Xpert® MTB/RIF introduction in Papua New Guinea, 2012-2017. Public Health Action. 2019;9(Suppl 1):S12–8.
- Papua New Guinea National Department of Health. Sector performance annual review. Port Moresby (Papua New Guinea): Ministry of Health; 2018.
- Papua New Guinea National Department of Health. Sector performance annual review. Port Moresby (Papua New Guinea): Ministry of Health; 2016.
- Mitjà O, Marks M, Konan DJP, Ayelo G, Gonzalez-Beiras C, Boua B, et al. Global epidemiology of yaws: a systematic review. Lancet Glob Health. 2015;3:e324–31.
- Mitjà O, Godornes C, Houinei W, Kapa A, Paru R, Abel H, et al. Re-emergence of yaws after single mass azithromycin treatment followed by targeted treatment: a longitudinal study. Lancet. 2018;391:1599–607.
- United Nations. SDG indicators: global indicator framework for the Sustainable Development Goals and targets of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. 2021 [cited 2021 Jan 14]. https://unstats.un.org/sdgs/indicators/indicators-list
1Members of this group are listed at the end of this article.
Page created: January 11, 2021
Page updated: February 21, 2021
Page reviewed: February 21, 2021
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.