Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link
Volume 27, Number 3—March 2021

Oral Human Papillomavirus Infection in Children during the First 6 Years of Life, Finland

Stina SyrjänenComments to Author , Marjut Rintala, Marja Sarkola, Jaana Willberg, Jaana Rautava, Hanna Koskimaa, Anna Paaso, Kari Syrjänen, Seija Grénman1, and Karolina Louvanto1
Author affiliations: University of Turku, Turku, Finland (S. Syrjänen, M. Rintala, J. Willberg, J. Rautava, H. Koskimaa, A. Paaso, S. Grenman, K. Louvanto); Central Hospital of Lahti, Lahti, Finland (M. Sarkola); Biohit Oyj, Helsinki, Finland (K. Syrjänen)

Main Article

Table 3

Predictors of incident, cleared, and persistent high-risk HPV infection in oral mucosa of children*

Predictor Oral high-risk HPV infection
Incident, IRR (95% CI)† Clearance, IRR (95% CI)† Persistence,‡ OR (95% CI)†
Mother 1.05 (0.49–2.27) 1.72 (0.95–3.10) 1.92 (1.35–2.74)
1.80 (0.79–4.08)
1.60 (0.70–3.65)
1.39 (0.57–3.39)
Seropositive to high-risk HPV at baseline
Mother 1.67 (0.67–4.12) 1.76 (0.74–4.20) 1.15 (0.75–1.76)
3.32 (1.24–8.91)
5.84 (2.09–16.32)
1.25 (0.61–2.53)
Seroconversion to high-risk HPV
Mother 2.20 (0.90–5.36) 2.86 (1.15–7.10) 1.60 (1.02–2.50)
Father 1.10 (0.57–2.10) 1.44 (0.46–4.49) 0.92 (0.39–2.17)
Child 0.83 (0.56–1.23) 1.48 (0.55–3.95) 0.93 (0.58–1.48)

*Values in bold are significant. Analyses were performed by using generalized estimating equation modeling (persistence) and Panel Poisson (incident and cleared) restricted to high-risk HPV types from species 7 (HPV genotypes: 18, 39, 45, 59, 68, 70, 85) and 9 (HPV genotypes: 16, 31, 33, 35, 52, 58). HPV70 was also included in the analyses even if labeled as a low-risk HPV genotype in the insert of the Multiplex Kit (Progen Biotechnik GmbH, HPV70 can be a possible carcinogen (limited evidence according to International Agency for Research on Cancer classification. HPV, human papillomavirus; IRR, incidence rate ratio; OR, odds ratio.
†Adjusted for age and all significant (and borderline significant) univariates in the model.
‡Binary outcome (persistent/not persistent), as defined by persistence of the 2 original HPV species (same genotype) during the follow-up.

Main Article

1These senior authors contributed equally to this article.

Page created: December 22, 2020
Page updated: February 21, 2021
Page reviewed: February 21, 2021
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.