Volume 27, Number 7—July 2021
Retrospective Study of Kyasanur Forest Disease and Deaths among Nonhuman Primates, India, 1957–2020
|Drivers||Source of information (reference)|
|Large-scale deforestation for various reasons (e.g., paddy fields and plantations)
||Ajesh et al., 2017 (1); Pattnaik, 2006 (3)
|Human encroachment into forested areas
||Pattnaik, 2006 (3); Murhekar et al., 2015 (6)
|Humidity in paddy fields ideal for tick survival
||Pattnaik, 2006 (3)
|Vector ticks can survive in various kinds of biotypes
||Sadanandane et al., 2018 (4)
|Number of small mammalian animals that act as reservoirs for the virus and for the vector tick
||Pattnaik, 2006 (3)
|Movement of monkeys into new areas
||Chakraborty et al., 2019 (2); Pattnaik, 2006 (3)
|Cattle may act as amplifying hosts for Kyasanur Forest disease virus and help in maintenance and propagation of the tick vector (handling of cows might also be a risk factor)||Chakraborty et al., 2019 (2)|
- Ajesh K, Nagaraja BK, Sreejith K. Kyasanur forest disease virus breaking the endemic barrier: An investigation into ecological effects on disease emergence and future outlook. Zoonoses Public Health. 2017;64:e73–80.
- Chakraborty S, Andrade FCD, Ghosh S, Uelmen J, Ruiz MO. Historical expansion of Kyasanur Forest disease in India from 1957 to 2017: a retrospective analysis. Geohealth. 2019;3:44–55.
- Pattnaik P. Kyasanur forest disease: an epidemiological view in India. Rev Med Virol. 2006;16:151–65.
- Sadanandane C, Gokhale MD, Elango A, Yadav P, Mourya DT, Jambulingam P. Prevalence and spatial distribution of Ixodid tick populations in the forest fringes of Western Ghats reported with human cases of Kyasanur forest disease and monkey deaths in South India. Exp Appl Acarol. 2018;75:135–42.
- Pavri K. Clinical, clinicopathologic, and hematologic features of Kyasanur Forest disease. Rev Infect Dis. 1989;11(Suppl 4):S854–9.
- Murhekar MV, Kasabi GS, Mehendale SM, Mourya DT, Yadav PD, Tandale BV. On the transmission pattern of Kyasanur Forest disease (KFD) in India. Infect Dis Poverty. 2015;4:37.
- Goverdhan MK, Rajagopalan PK, Narasimha Murthy DP, Upadhyaya S, Boshell-M J, Trapido H, et al. Epizootiology of Kyasanur Forest Disease in wild monkeys of Shimoga district, Mysore State (1957-1964). Indian J Med Res. 1974;62:497–510.
- Mehla R, Kumar SR, Yadav P, Barde PV, Yergolkar PN, Erickson BR, et al. Recent ancestry of Kyasanur Forest disease virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:1431–7.
- Kumara HN, Singh M, Kumar S, Sinha A. Distribution, abundance, group size and demography of dark-bellied bonnet macaque Macaca radiata in Karnataka, South India. Curr Sci. 2010;99:663–7.
- Sinha A. The bonnet macaque revisited: ecology, demography and behavior. Environmental Information System bulletin. Wildlife and Protected Areas. 2001;1:32–41.
- Kumara HN, Kumar S, Singh M. Of how much concern are the ‘least concern’ species? Distribution and conservation status of bonnet macaques, rhesus macaques and Hanuman langurs in Karnataka, India. Primates. 2010;51:37–42.
- Technical Information Bulletin—Indian Council on Medical Research. Kyasanur Forest disease 1957–1964. Poona (India): Virus Research Centre.; 1964.
- Patil DR, Yadav PD, Shete A, Chaubal G, Mohandas S, Sahay RR, et al. Study of Kyasanur forest disease viremia, antibody kinetics, and virus infection in target organs of Macaca radiata. Sci Rep. 2020;10:12561.
- Kasabi GS, Murhekar MV, Sandhya VK, Raghunandan R, Kiran SK, Channabasappa GH, et al. Coverage and effectiveness of Kyasanur forest disease (KFD) vaccine in Karnataka, South India, 2005-10. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7:
- Neo JPS, Tan BH. The use of animals as a surveillance tool for monitoring environmental health hazards, human health hazards and bioterrorism. Vet Microbiol. 2017;203:40–8.
Page created: May 21, 2021
Page updated: June 17, 2021
Page reviewed: June 17, 2021
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.