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Volume 28, Number 1—January 2022

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 and Respiratory Virus Sentinel Surveillance, California, USA, May 10, 2020–June 12, 2021

Gail L. Sondermeyer CookseyComments to Author , Christina Morales, Lauren Linde, Samuel Schildhauer, Hugo Guevara, Elena Chan, Kathryn Gibb, Jessie Wong, Wen Lin, Brandon J. Bonin, Olivia Arizmendi, Tracy Lam-Hine, Ori Tzvieli, Ann McDowell, Kirstie M. Kampen, Denise L. Lopez, Josh Ennis, Linda S. Lewis, Eyal Oren, April Hatada, Blanca Molinar, Matt Frederick, George S. Han, Martha Sanchez, Michael A. Garcia, Alana McGrath, Nga Q. Le, Eric Boyd, Regina M. Bertolucci, Jeremy Corrigan, Stephanie Brodine, Michael Austin, William R. K. Roach, Robert M. Levin, Brian M. Tyson, Jake M. Pry, Kristin J. Cummings, Debra A. Wadford, and Seema Jain
Author affiliations: California Department of Public Health, Richmond, California, USA (G.L. Sondermeyer Cooksey, C. Morales, L. Linde, S. Schildhauer, H. Guevara, E. Chan, K. Gibb, J. Wong, A. Hatada, B. Molinar, M. Frederick, J.M. Pry, K.J. Cummings, D.A. Wadford, S. Jain); County of Santa Clara Public Health Department, San Jose, California, USA (W. Lin, B.J. Bonin, G.S. Han); California Department of Public Health, San Diego, California, USA (O. Arizmendi); Marin County Health and Human Services, San Rafael, California, USA (T. Lam-Hine, A. McGrath, N.Q. Le); Contra Costa Health Services, Contra Costa County, California, USA (O. Tzvieli); County of San Luis Obispo Health Agency, San Luis Obispo, California, USA (A. McDowell, E. Boyd); Tulare County Public Health, Visalia, California, USA (K.M. Kampen, D.L. Lopez); Humboldt County Department of Health and Human Services, Eureka, California, USA (J. Ennis, J. Corrigan); Butte County Public Health Department, Oroville, California, USA (L.S. Lewis, R.M. Bertolucci); San Diego State University School of Public Health, San Diego (E. Oren, S. Brodine, M. Austin); Imperial County Public Health Department, El Centro, California, USA (M. Sanchez, M.A. Garcia); County of San Diego Health and Human Services, San Diego (W.R.K. Roach); Ventura County Public Health, Ventura, California, USA (R.M. Levin); All Valley Urgent Care, El Centro (B.M. Tyson)

Main Article

Table 2

Relative risks of a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result by patient demographic and epidemiologic characteristics, crude and adjusted, in study of surveillance for SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory pathogens,, (), California, USA, May 10, 2020–June 12, 2021*

Crude relative risk (95% CI)
Adjusted relative risk (95% CI)
F Referent Referent
1.10 (1.01–1.20)
1.16 (1.05–1.29)
Age category, y
<1–4 0.62 (0.44–0.88) 0.55 (0.37–0.82)
5–17 1.03 (0.88–1.20) 1.03 (0.86–1.23)
18–34 Referent Referent
5–49 1.30 (1.17–1.44) 1.27 (1.12–1.44)
50–64 0.93 (0.82–1.06) 1.06 (0.91–1.23)
0.72 (0.58–0.88)
1.09 (0.86–1.38)
White Referent Referent
Latino/Hispanic 3.13 (2.71–3.61) 2.35 (1.99–2.77)
Asian 1.45 (1.10–1.90) 0.99 (0.73–1.34)
Black 1.45 (0.97–2.18) 1.10 (0.71–1.70)
American Indian 1.28 (0.50–3.25) 1.23 (0.46–3.32)
Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander 1.59 (0.63–3.98) 1.39 (0.52–3.76)
Multirace 1.37 (0.75–2.49) 1.21 (0.64–2.29)
Other race
1.66 (1.19–2.32)
1.25 (0.86–1.81)
Contact with COVID-19 case-patient¶
2.04 (1.86–2.24)
1.89 (1.67–2.15)
Underlying conditions#**
Current or former smoker 0.71 (0.60–0.84) 0.87 (0.72–1.06)
Obesity 1.44 (1.26–1.65) 1.24 (1.03–1.48)
Asthma 0.74 (0.61–0.89) 0.76 (0.61–0.95)
Diabetes 1.30 (1.10–1.53) 1.23 (1.00–1.52)
1.05 (0.87–1.27)
1.10 (0.87–1.39)
Occupation category††‡‡
Transportation 1.86 (1.38–2.51) 1.60 (1.09–2.35)
Farming, fishing and forestry 1.37 (0.96–1.95) 1.28 (0.81–2.04)
Construction and extraction 1.64 (1.32–2.05) 1.25 (0.93–1.69)
Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance 1.39 (1.09–1.79) 1.14 (0.84–1.54)
Production and manufacturing 1.14 (0.78–1.67) 1.04 (0.67–1.62)
Office and administrative support 0.78 (0.57–1.08) 1.01 (0.70–1.46)
Material moving 1.36 (0.86–2.13) 1.01 (0.58–1.77)
Food preparation and serving related 1.07 (0.86–1.33) 0.98 (0.76–1.28)
Sales and related 1.07 (0.85–1.34) 0.99 (0.76–1.29)
Personal care and service 0.88 (0.65–1.20) 0.94 (0.65–1.34)
Installation, maintenance, and repair 1.14 (0.69–1.88) 0.94 (0.53–1.69)
Protective service 0.99 (0.67–1.46) 0.93 (0.59–1.46)
Education, training and library 0.60 (0.34–1.08) 0.80 (0.41–1.56)
Healthcare support 0.72 (0.41–1.25) 0.78 (0.42–1.46)
Management 0.50 (0.28–0.91) 0.77 (0.41–1.45)
Healthcare practitioners and technical 0.29 (0.13–0.64) 0.42 (0.17–1.04)

*The 8,662 participants were selected from the California SARS-CoV-2 and Respiratory Virus Sentinel Surveillance program. Corresponding relative risks and 95% CIs were calculated by using mixed effects Poisson regression, both unadjusted and adjusted for sex, age (categorical), race/ethnicity, and county of testing site, allowing for random effects at the county level. COVID-19, coronavirus disease; SARS-CoV-2, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2.
†Excluding participants who had missing information for these variables and excluding those of other sex.
§If participant ethnicity was reported as Latino/Hispanic (Latino) then race/ethnicity was listed as Latino; otherwise, race/ethnicity was listed as the reported race.
¶Within the 14 days before onset.
#Referent group was persons without the select characteristic or underlying condition.
**Age was restricted to participants >18 of age for diabetes, smoking, and hypertension and to participants >5 y for obesity and asthma.
††Within the month before onset.
‡‡Age was restricted to participants >16 years of age for all occupation category models. Referent group for occupation category was persons with all other reported and coded occupations.

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Page created: September 21, 2021
Page updated: December 20, 2021
Page reviewed: December 20, 2021
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