Volume 28, Number 10—October 2022
Epidemiology of Early Monkeypox Virus Transmission in Sexual Networks of Gay and Bisexual Men, England, 2022
|Place of birth|
|United Kingdom||19 (43)|
|Europe, not including United Kingdom||12 (27)|
|South America||5 (11)|
|Region of residence|
|Other regions in the United Kingdom
|No. sexual contacts in past 3 mo|
|Prefer not to say/unknown
|HIV prevention and care|
|HIV negative||32 (71)|
|Receiving PrEP||29 (91)|
|Living with diagnosed HIV||11 (24)|
|Receiving HIV treatment||11 (100)|
|Undetectable viral load||10 (91)|
|Prefer not to say/unknown HIV status
|History of STI in past year|
|Travel abroad within 21 d before symptom onset|
|Yes, reported sexual activity||9 (20)|
|Yes, but no sexual activity||5 (11)|
|Exposure events within 21 d before symptom onset†|
|Festivals outside of the United Kingdom||5 (11)|
|Sex-on-premises venues||20 (44)|
|Private sex parties||9 (20)|
|Cruising grounds||7 (16)|
|None of the above
|Sexual activity within 21 d before symptom onset‡|
|Sexual activity with new partners||37 (82)|
|Sexual activity with one-time partners||34 (76)|
|Sexual activity with occasional partners||24 (53)|
|Sexual activity with established partners||12 (27)|
|Sexual activity with women||2 (5)|
|Group sexual activity||20 (44)|
|Sexual activity with partners who are not regular UK residents||11 (24)|
|Sexual activity in locations different from city/town of residence||13 (30)|
|Sexual activity with partners met via geospatial dating apps||28 (64)|
|No sexual activity reported||2 (4)|
*Sexual activity was defined as direct contact of a sexual nature, such as kissing, oral sex, and penetrative (vaginal, anal) sex. Some categories in this table were collapsed to avoid deductive disclosure. Median (interquartile range) age, 40 (32–43) y. PrEP, pre-exposure prophylaxis; STI, sexually transmitted infection. †Sex-on-premises venues, private sex parties and cruising grounds are activities that took place either in the United Kingdom or abroad. ‡New partner, person with whom the index case-patient is likely to have had sex on >1 occasion; one-time partner, person with whom the index case-patient has had sex on 1 occasion only; occasional partner, person with whom the index case-patient has had sex on >1 occasion and with whom there is an expectation of sex again on a sporadic or regular basis; established partner, primary partner or secondary partner (e.g., a long-term affair) (10); chemsex, use of drugs such as GHB (gamma-hydroxybutyrate), crystal methamphetamine, or mephedrone during sex.
- World Health Organization. Monkeypox [cited 2022 Jul 13]. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/monkeypox
- Vaughan A, Aarons E, Astbury J, Balasegaram S, Beadsworth M, Beck CR, et al. Two cases of monkeypox imported to the United Kingdom, September 2018. Euro Surveill. 2018;23:23.
- Vaughan A, Aarons E, Astbury J, Brooks T, Chand M, Flegg P, et al. Human-to-human transmission of monkeypox virus, United Kingdom, October 2018. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26:782–5.
- Hobson G, Adamson J, Adler H, Firth R, Gould S, Houlihan C, et al. Family cluster of three cases of monkeypox imported from Nigeria to the United Kingdom, May 2021. Euro Surveill. 2021;26:26.
- Perez Duque M, Ribeiro S, Martins JV, Casaca P, Leite PP, Tavares M, et al. Ongoing monkeypox virus outbreak, Portugal, 29 April to 23 May 2022. Euro Surveill. 2022;27:
- Antinori A, Mazzotta V, Vita S, Carletti F, Tacconi D, Lapini LE, et al.; INMI Monkeypox Group. Epidemiological, clinical and virological characteristics of four cases of monkeypox support transmission through sexual contact, Italy, May 2022. Euro Surveill. 2022;27:
- Vivancos R, Anderson C, Blomquist P, Balasegaram S, Bell A, Bishop L, et al.; UKHSA Monkeypox Incident Management team; Monkeypox Incident Management Team. Community transmission of monkeypox in the United Kingdom, April to May 2022. Euro Surveill. 2022;27:
- Gilbart VL, Simms I, Jenkins C, Furegato M, Gobin M, Oliver I, et al. Sex, drugs and smart phone applications: findings from semistructured interviews with men who have sex with men diagnosed with Shigella flexneri 3a in England and Wales. Sex Transm Infect. 2015;91:598–602.
- Charles H, Prochazka M, Thorley K, Crewdson A, Greig DR, Jenkins C, et al.; Outbreak Control Team. Outbreak of sexually transmitted, extensively drug-resistant Shigella sonnei in the UK, 2021–22: a descriptive epidemiological study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2022;S1473-3099(22)00370-X.
- Estcourt CS, Flowers P, Cassell JA, Pothoulaki M, Vojt G, Mapp F, et al. Going beyond ‘regular and casual’: development of a classification of sexual partner types to enhance partner notification for STIs. Sex Transm Infect. 2022;98:108–14.
- Ogoina D, Izibewule JH, Ogunleye A, Ederiane E, Anebonam U, Neni A, et al. The 2017 human monkeypox outbreak in Nigeria-Report of outbreak experience and response in the Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. PLoS One. 2019;14:
- Beebeejaun K, Degala S, Balogun K, Simms I, Woodhall SC, Heinsbroek E, et al. Outbreak of hepatitis A associated with men who have sex with men (MSM), England, July 2016 to January 2017. Euro Surveill. 2017;22:22.
- Simms I, Field N, Jenkins C, Childs T, Gilbart VL, Dallman TJ, et al. Intensified shigellosis epidemic associated with sexual transmission in men who have sex with men—Shigella flexneri and S. sonnei in England, 2004 to end of February 2015. Euro Surveill. 2015;20:21097.
- UK Health Security Agency, Public Health Scotland, Public Health Wales, Public Health Agency Northern Ireland. Principles for monkeypox control in the UK: 4 nations consensus statement [cited 2022 Jul 13]. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/principles-for-monkeypox-control-in-the-uk-4-nations-consensus-statement/principles-for-monkeypox-control-in-the-uk-4-nations-consensus-statement
- UK Health Security Agency. Monkeypox outbreak: vaccination strategy [cited 2022 Jul 13]. https://www.gov.uk/guidance/monkeypox-outbreak-vaccination-strategy
1These authors contributed equally to this article.