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Volume 3, Number 2—June 1997

Hantaviruses: A Global Disease Problem

Connie Schmaljohn*Comments to Author  and Brian Hjelle
Author affiliations: *United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, Frederick, Maryland, USA; and †University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA

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Table 1

Members of the genus Hantavirus, family Bunyaviridae

Species Disease Principal Reservoir Distribution of Virus Distribution of Reservoir
Hantaan (HTN) HFRSa Apodemus agrarius (striped field mouse) China, Russia, Korea C Europe south to Thrace, Caucasus, & Tien Shan Mtns; Amur River through Korea to E Xizang & E Yunnan, W Sichuan, Fujiau, & Taiwan(China)
Dobrava-Belgrade (DOB) HFRS Apodemus flavicollis (yellow-neck mouse) Balkans England & Wales, from NW Spain, France, S Scandinavia through European Russia to Urals, S Italy, the Balkans, Syria, Lebanon, & Israel
Seoul (SEO) HFRS Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) Worldwide Worldwide
Puumala (PUU) HFRS Clethrionomys glareolus (bank vole) Europe, Russia, Scandinavia W Palearctic from France and Scandinavia to Lake Baikai, south to N Spain, N Italy, Balkans,W Turkey, N Kazakhstan, Altai & Sayan Mtns; Britain & SW Ireland
Thailand (THAI) ndb Bandicota indica (bandicoot rat) Thailand Sri Lanka, peninsular India to Nepal, Burma, NE India, S China, Laos, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam
Prospect Hill (PH) nd Microtus pennsylvanicus (meadow vole) U.S., Canada C Alaska to Labrador, including Newfoundland & Prince Edward Island, Canada; Rocky Mountains to N New Mexico, in Great Plains to N Kansas, & in Appalachians to N Georgia, U.S.
Khabarovsk (KHB) nd Microtus fortis (reed vole) Russia Transbaikalia Amur region; E China
Thottapalayam (TPM) nd Suncus murinus (musk shrew) India Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan, Burma, China, Taiwan, Japan, Indomalayan Region
Tula (TUL) nd Microtus arvalis (European common vole) Europe Throughout Europe to Black Sea & NE to Kirov region, Russia
Sin Nombre (SN) HPSc Peromyscus maniculatus (deer mouse) U.S., Canada, Alaska Panhandle across N Mexico Canada, south through most of continental U.S., excluding SE & E seaboard, to southernmost Baja California Sur and to NC Oaxaca, Mexico
New York (NY) HPS Peromyscus leucopus (white-footed mouse) U.S. C and E U.S. to S Alberta & S Ontario, Quebec & Nova Scotia, Canada; to N Durango & along Caribbean coast to Isthmus of Tehuantepec & Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico
Black Creek Canal (BCC) HPS Sigmodon hispidus (cotton rat) U.S. SE U.S., from S Nebraska to C Virginia south to SE Arizona & peninsular Florida; interior & E Mexico through Middle America to C Panama; in South Amer ica to N Colombia & N Venezuela
El Moro Canyon (ELMC)d nd Reithrodontomys megalotis (Western harvest mouse) U.S., Mexico British Columbia & SE Alberta, Canada; W and NC U.S., S to N Baja California & interior Mexico to central Oaxaca
Bayou (BAY)d HPS Oryzomys palustri (rice rat) U.S. SE Kansas to E Texas, eastward to S New Jersey & peninsular Florida
Probable species:e
Topografov (TOP) nd Lemmus sibiricus (Siberian lemming) Siberia Palearctic, from White Sea, W Russia, to Chukotski Peninsula, NE Siberia, & Kamchatka; Nearctic, from W Alaska E to Baffin Island & Hudson Bay, S Rocky Mtns to C B.C., Canada
Andes (AND)d HPS Oligoryzomys longicaudatusf (long-tailed pygmy rice rat) Argentina NC to S Andes, approximately to 50 deg S latitude, in Chile & Argentina
To be namedd HPS Calomys laucha vesper mouse Paraguay N Argentina & Uruguay, SE Bolivia, W Paraguay, and WC Brazil
Isla Vista (ISLA)d nd Microtus californicus (California vole) U.S. Pacific coast, from SW Oregon through California, U.S., to N Baja California, Mexico
Bloodland Lake (BLL)d nd Microtus ochrogaster (prairie vole) U.S. N & C Great Plains, EC Alberta to S Manitoba, Canada, S to N Oklahoma & Arkansas, E to C Tennessee & W West Virginia, U.S.; relic populations elsewhere in U.S. & Mexico
Muleshoe (MUL)d nd Sigmodon hipidus (cotton rat) U.S. See Black Creek Canal
Rio Segundo (RIOS)d nd Reithrodontomys mexicanus (Mexican harvest mouse) Costa Rica S Tamaulipas & WC Michoacan, Mexico, S through Middle American highlands to W Panama; Andes of W Colombia & N Ecuador
Rio Mamore (RIOM)d nd Oligoryzomys microtis (small-eared pygmy rice rat) Bolivia C Brazil south of Rios Solimoes- Amazon & contiguous low lands of Peru, Bolivia, Paraguay, & Argentina.

aHFRS, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome
bnd, none documented
cHPS, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome
d not yet isolated in cell culture
e viruses for which incomplete characterization is available, but for which there is clear evidence indicating that they are unique
f suspected host, but not confirmed
Adapted from (57,72) and from (9,13,23,38,42,43,50-71)

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