Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link
Volume 5, Number 3—June 1999

Bacterial Vaccines and Serotype Replacement: Lessons from Haemophilus influenzae and Prospects for Streptococcus pneumoniae

Marc LipsitchComments to Author 
Author affiliation: Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

Main Article

Figure 1

The structure of the mathematical model described in the text and in greater detail (30).

Figure 1. The structure of the mathematical model described in the text and in greater detail (30).

Main Article

  1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Prevention of pneumococcal disease: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1997;46:RR8.
  2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Progress toward elimination of Haemophilus influenzae type b disease among infants and children—United States, 1987-1995. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1996;45:9016.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Booy  R, Kroll  JS. Is Haemophilus influenzae finished? J Antimicrob Chemother. 1997;40:14953. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Dagan  R, Melamed  R, Muallem  M, Piglansky  L, Greenberg  D, Abramson  O, Reduction of nasopharyngeal carriage of pneumococci during the second year of life by a heptavalent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine. J Infect Dis. 1996;174:12718.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Obaro  SK, Adegbola  RA, Banya  WAS, Greenwood  BM. Carriage of pneumococci after pneumococcal vaccination. Lancet. 1996;348:2712. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Mbelle  N, Wasas  A, Huebner  R, Kimura  A, Chang  I, Klugman  K. Immunogenicity and impact on carriage of 9-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine given to infants in Soweto, South Africa. Proceedings from the Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy; September 28-October 1, 1997; Toronto, Canada. LB-12, p. 13.
  7. Dagan  R, Givon  N, Yagupsky  P, Porat  N, Janco  J, Chang  I, Effect of a 9-valent pneumococcal vaccine conjugated to CRM197 (PncCRM9) on nasopharyngeal (NP) carriage of vaccine type and non-vaccine type S. pneumoniae (Pnc) strains among day-care-center (DCC) attendees. Proceedings from the 38th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy; September 24-27, 1998; San Diego, California. G52.
  8. Black  S, Shinefield  H, Ray  P, Lewis  E, Fireman  B; The Kaiser Permanente Vaccine Study Group. Efficacy of heptavalent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine (Wyeth Lederle) in 37,000 infants and children: results of the Northern California Kaiser Permanente Efficacy Trial. Proceedings from the 38th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy; September 24-27, 1998; San Diego, California. LB-9.
  9. Barbour  ML. Conjugate vaccines and the carriage of Haemophilus influenzae type b. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2:17682. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Moxon  ER. The carrier state: Haemophilus influenzae. J Antimicrob Chemother 1986;18 Suppl A:17-24.
  11. Austrian  R. Some aspects of the pneumococcal carrier state. J Antimicrob Chemother 1986;18 Suppl A:35-45.
  12. Lipsitch  M, Moxon  ER. Virulence and transmissibility of pathogens: what is the relationship? Trends Microbiol. 1997;5:317. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Topley  WWC. The spread of bacterial infection. Lancet 1919;July 5:1-5.
  14. Levin  BR, Bull  JJ. Short-sighted evolution and the virulence of pathogenic microbes. Trends Microbiol. 1994;2:7681. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Barbour  ML, Mayon-White  RT, Coles  C, Crook  DWM, Moxon  ER. The impact of conjugate vaccine on carriage of Haemophilus influenzae type b. J Infect Dis. 1995;171:938.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Adams  WG, Deaver  KA, Cochi  SL, Plikaytis  BD, Zell  ER, Broome  CV, Decline of childhood Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease in the Hib vaccine era. JAMA. 1993;269:2216. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Wenger  JD, Pierce  R, Deaver  K, Franklin  R, Bosley  G, Pigott  N, Invasive Haemophilus influenzae disease: a population-based evaluation of the role of capsular polysaccharide serotype. J Infect Dis. 1992;165(Suppl 1):S345.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Farley  MM, Stephens  DS, Brachman  PS Jr. Invasive Haemophilus influenzae disease in adults: a prospective, population-based surveillance. Ann Intern Med. 1992;116:80612.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Nitta  DM, Jackson  MA, Burry  VF, Olson  LC. Invasive Haemophilus influenzae type f disease. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1995;14:15760. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Greene  GR. Meningitis due to Haemophilus influenzae other than type b: case report and review. Pediatrics. 1978;62:10215.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Takala  AK, Eskola  J, Leinonen  M, Kayhty  H, Nissinen  A, Pekkanen  E, Reduction of oropharyngeal carriage of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) in children immunized with an Hib conjugate vaccine. J Infect Dis. 1991;164:9826.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Booy  R, Heath  P, Willocks  L, Mayon-White  D, Slack  M, Moxon  R. Invasive pneumococcal infections in children. Lancet. 1995;345:12456. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Urwin  G, Krohn  JA, Deaver-Robinson  K, Wenger  JD, Farley  MM, Group  HIS. Invasive disease due to Haemophilus influenzae serotype f: clinical and epidemiological characteristics in the H. influenzae serotype b vaccine era. Clin Infect Dis. 1996;22:106976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Baer  M, Vuento  R, Vesikari  T. Increase in bacteraemic pneumococcal infections in children. Lancet. 1995;345:661. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Schuchat  A, Robinson  K, Wenger  JD, Harrison  LH, Farley  M, Reingold  AL, Bacterial meningitis in the United States in 1995. N Engl J Med. 1997;337:9706. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Anderson  RM, May  RM. Infectious diseases of humans: dynamics and control. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1991.
  27. Hodges  RG, MacLeod  CM, Bernhard  WG. Epidemic pneumococcal pneumonia. III. Carrier studies. Am J Hyg. 1946;44:20730.
  28. Pradier  C, Dunais  B, Carsenti-Etesse  H, Largillier  R, Bernard  E, Dellamonica  P. Nasopharyngeal carriage of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (PRSP): prevalence and incidence in three children's day-care centres in Nice, France, from 1994 to 1995. Proceedings from the 36th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy; September 15-18, 1996; New Orleans, Louisiana. C56.
  29. Reichler  MR, Allphin  AA, Breiman  RF, Schreiber  JR, Arnold  JE, McDougal  LK, The spread of multiply resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae at a day care center in Ohio. J Infect Dis. 1992;166:134653.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Sanders  CC, Sanders  WE Jr, Harrowe  DJ. Bacterial interference: effects of oral antibiotics on the normal throat flora and its ability to interfere with group A streptococci. Infect Immun. 1976;13:80812.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Johanson  WG Jr, Blackstock  R, Pierce  AK, Sanford  JP. The role of bacterial antagonism in pneumococcal colonization of the human pharynx. J Lab Clin Med. 1970;75:94652.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Venezia  RA, Robertson  RG. Bactericidal substance produced by Haemophilus influenzae type b. Can J Microbiol. 1975;21:158794. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Lipsitch  M. Vaccination against colonizing bacteria with multiple serotypes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:65716. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Sutton  A, Schneerson  R, Kendall-Morris  S, Robbins  JB. Differential complement resistance mediates virulence of Haemophilus influenzae type b. Infect Immun. 1982;35:95104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Smith  T, Lehmann  D, Montgomery  J, Gratten  M, Riley  ID, Alpers  MP. Acquisition and invasiveness of different serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae in young children. Epidemiol Infect. 1993;111:2739. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Ewald  PW. Vaccines as evolutionary tools: the virulence-antigen strategy. In: Kaufmann SHE, editor. Concepts in vaccine development. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter; 1996.
  37. Moxon  ER, Vaughn  KA. The type b capsular polysaccharide as a virulence determinant of Haemophilus influenzae: studies using clinical isolates and laboratory transformants. J Infect Dis. 1981;14:51724.
  38. Kelly  T, Dillard  JP, Yother  J. Effect of genetic switching of capsular type on virulence of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Infect Immun. 1994;62:18139.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Barnes  DM, Whittier  S, Gilligan  PH, Soares  S, Tomasz  A, Henderson  FW. Transmission of multidrug-resistant serotype 23F Streptococcus pneumoniae in group day care: evidence suggesting capsular transformation of the resistant strain in vivo. J Infect Dis. 1995;171:8906.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Takala  AK, Vuopio-Varkila  J, Tarkka  E, Leinonen  M, Musser  JM. Subtyping of common pediatric pneumococcal serotypes from invasive disease and pharyngeal carriage in Finland. J Infect Dis. 1996;173:12835.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Gratten  M, Montgomery  J, Gerega  G, Gratten  H, Siwi  H, Poli  A, Multiple colonization of the upper respiratory tract of Papua New Guinea children with Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 1989;20:5019.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Gilks  WR, Spiegelhalter  DJ. A language and program for complex Bayesian modeling. Statistician. 1994;43:16978. DOIGoogle Scholar
  43. Spiegelhalter  DJ, Thomas  A, Best  NG, Gilks  WR. BUGS: Bayesian inference using Gibbs sampling. Version 0.50. Cambridge: MRC Biostatistics Unit; 1995.
  44. Musher  DM, Groover  JE, Reichler  MR, Riedo  FX, Schwarz  B, Watson  DA, Emergence of antibody to capsular polysaccharides of Streptococcus pneumoniae during outbreaks of pneumonia: association with nasopharyngeal colonization. Clin Infect Dis. 1997;24:4416.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Dagan  R, Melamed  R, Muallem  M, Piglansky  L, Yagupsky  P. Nasopharyngeal colonization in southern Israel with antibiotic-resistant pneumococci during the first 2 years of life: relation to serotypes likely to be included in pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. J Infect Dis. 1996;174:13525.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Butler  JC. Epidemiology of pneumococcal serotypes and conjugate vaccine formulations. Microb Drug Resist. 1997;3:1259. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Paton  JC. Novel pneumococcal surface proteins: role in virulence and vaccine potential. Trends Microbiol. 1998;6:857. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar

Main Article

Page created: December 10, 2010
Page updated: December 10, 2010
Page reviewed: December 10, 2010
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.