Volume 7, Number 6—December 2001
Could Malaria Reappear in Italy?
|Region||At-risk areas||Vector||Larval breeding sitesa||Vector density and capacityb|
|Tuscany||Grosseto province: areas of intensive rice cultivation (S. Carlo, Principina and S. Donato, Orbetello)||An.labranchiae||Rice fields, agricultural and land reclamation canals, wells. Larval densities in rice fields 5-10 larvae/sample, elsewhere 0.5-1 larvae/sample||100-1,000 per animal shelter; 180-200/person /night. VC in rice fields: P. falc. 7-26; P. vivax 8.3-32.5; VC in natural breeding sites: P. falc. 0.8-2.9; P. vivax 0.96-3.3|
|Apulia||Coastal plains of the Adriatic side, from Lesina Lake to Candelaro River||An.labranchiae||Land reclamation canals, pools for agricultural purposes. Larval densities 0.02 -0.05 larvae/sample||20-30 per animal shelter|
|Calabria||Coastal plains of the Tirrenian and Ionian sides and the close hinterland||An. labranchiae An. superpictus||Larval densities: An. labranchiae 0.1- 1 larvae/sample An. superpictus 0.06-0.1 larvae/sample||20-500 An. labranchiae, 2-10 An. superpictus per animal shelter. 10-20 An.labr./person/ night. VC of An. labranchiae for P. falciparum 0.8-8.9|
|Sicily||Rural coastal and hilly areas of the whole region||An. labranchiae An. superpictus||Rivers, streams, pools, and canals for agricultural purposes. Larval densities of An. labranchiae 0.03 to 0.5 larvae/sample||10-200 An. labranchiae per animal shelter|
|Sardinia||Rural coastal and hilly areas of the whole region||An. labranchiae||Mainly rivers and streams; ponds, artificial pools, rice fields and irrigation canals. Larval densities 1 to 10 larvae/sample||5-40 per animal shelter|
aFigures refer to areas considered as "at risk" for malaria reintroduction during surveys carried out from 1994 to 1996.
bCalculated at a mean temperature of 25°C (July to August), assuming a sporogonic cycle of 11 days for P. falciparum and 10 days for P. vivax. VC = vectorial capacity.