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Volume 8, Number 1—January 2002

A Large Outbreak of Legionnaires’ Disease at a Flower Show, the Netherlands, 1999

Jeroen W. Den Boer*†Comments to Author , Ed P.F. Yzerman‡, Joop Schellekens*, Kamilla D. Lettinga§, Hendriek C. Boshuizen*, Jim E. Van Steenbergen¶, Arnold Bosman*, Susan Van den Hof*, Hans A. Van Vliet*, Marcel F. Peeters#, Ruud J. Van Ketel§, Peter Speelman§, Jacob L. Kool*, and Marina A.E. Conyn Van Spaendonck*
Author affiliations: *National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, the Netherlands; †Municipal Health Service Zuid-Kennemerland, Haarlem, the Netherlands; ‡Regional Laboratory of Public Health Haarlem, Haarlem, the Netherlands; §Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; ¶National Outbreak Structure for Infectious Diseases, Den Haag, the Netherlands; #Regional Laboratory of Public Health Tilburg, Tilburg, the Netherlands

Main Article

Table 1

Positive diagnostic tests results for 188 cases (133 confirmed and 55 probable) of Legionellosis, the Netherlands, 1999a

Culture Urinary antigen Fourfold rise in titer Direct immunofluorescence PCRb Single high titer
Culture 29 24 3 2 11 4
Urinary antigen 24 100 25 1 15 12
Fourfold rise in titer 3 25 53 0 1 0
Direct immunofluorescence 2 1 0 2 1 0
PCR 11 15 1 1 18 3
Single high titer 4 12 0 0 3 18

aThe table is read as follows: of 29 patients who had positive cultures, 24 were positive by urinary antigen, 3 had a fourfold rise in titer, 2 were positive by direct immunofluorescence, and 11 by PCR, and 4 had single high titers.
bPCR = polymerase chain reaction.

Main Article

1A bubblemat is an inflatable rubber mat that causes a whirlpool-like effect when placed in a normal bathtub.

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