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Volume 8, Number 2—February 2002


Vector Interactions and Molecular Adaptations of Lyme Disease and Relapsing Fever Spirochetes Associated with Transmission by Ticks

Tom G. Schwan*Comments to Author  and Joseph Piesman†
Author affiliations: *National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, Montana, USA; †Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA

Main Article


Diseases caused by infection with Borrelia species

Disease No. of species Arthropod vector
Lyme disease 3a Hard ticks (Ixodes spp.)
Tick-borne relapsing fever 21b Soft ticks (Ornithodoros spp.)
Avian borreliosis 1c Soft ticks (Argas spp.)
Bovine borreliosis 1d Hard ticks (Boophilus spp.)
Louse-borne relapsing fever 1 Body louse (Pediculus)

aBorrelia burgdorferi, B. garinii, and B. afzelii are known human pathogens.
bSome species of Borrelia associated with Ornithodoros ticks are of unknown pathogenicity.
cB. anserina.
dB. theileri.
eB. recurrentis.

Main Article