Volume 9, Number 10—October 2003
1918 Influenza Pandemic and Highly Conserved Viruses with Two Receptor-Binding Variants
- Crosby A. America’s forgotten pandemic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1989.
- Jordan E. Epidemic influenza: a survey. Chicago: American Medical Association; 1927.
- Reid AH, Taubenberger JK, Fanning TG. The 1918 Spanish influenza: integrating history and biology. Microbes Infect. 2001;3:81–7.
- Taubenberger JK, Reid AH, Janczewski TA, Fanning TG. Integrating historical, clinical and molecular genetic data in order to explain the origin and virulence of the 1918 Spanish influenza virus. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2001;356:1829–39.
- Patterson KD, Pyle GF. The geography and mortality of the 1918 influenza pandemic. Bull Hist Med. 1991;65:4–21.
- Wright PE, Webster RG. Orthomyxoviruses. In: Knipe DM, Howley PM, editors. Fields virology. Vol 1. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2001:1533–79.
- Webster RG, Bean WJ, Gorman OT, Chambers TM, Kawaoka Y. Evolution and ecology of influenza A viruses. Microbiol Rev. 1992;56:152–79.
- Lamb RA, Takeda M. Death by influenza virus protein. Nat Med. 2001;7:1286–8.
- Parvin JD, Smith FI, Palese P. Rapid RNA sequencing using double-stranded template DNA, SP6 polymerase, and 3′-deoxynucleotide triphosphates. DNA. 1986;5:167–71.
- Hay AJ, Gregory V, Douglas AR, Lin YP. The evolution of human influenza viruses. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2001;356:1861–70.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Influenza summary update: 2001–2 influenza season summary. June 10, 2002. [Accessed September 23, 2002]. Available from: URL: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/diseases/flu/weeklyarchives/01-02summary.htm
- Kilbourne E. Influenza pandemics in perspective. JAMA. 1977;237:1225–8.
- Schild GC, Oxford JS, de Jong JC, Webster RG. Evidence for host-cell selection of influenza virus antigenic variants. Nature. 1983;303:706–9.
- Gambaryan A, Tuzikov A, Piskarev V, Yamnikova SS, Lvov DK, Robertson JS, Specification of receptor-binding phenotypes of influenza virus isolates from different hosts using synthetic sialylglycopolymers: non-egg-adapted human H1 and H3 influenza A and influenza B viruses share a common high binding affinity for 6′-sialyl(N-acetyllactosamine). Virology. 1997;232:345–50.
- Reid AH, Fanning TG, Hultin JV, Taubenberger JK. Origin and evolution of the 1918 “Spanish” influenza virus hemagglutinin gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:1651–6.
- Taubenberger JK, Reid AH, Krafft AE, Bijwaard KE, Fanning TG. Initial genetic characterization of the 1918 “Spanish” influenza virus [see comments]. Science. 1997;275:1793–6.
- Winternitz MC, Wason IM, McNamara FP. The pathology of influenza. New Haven (CT): Yale University Press; 1920.
- Wolbach SB. Comments on the pathology and bacteriology of fatal influenza cases, as observed at Camp Devens, Mass. Johns Hopkins Hospital Bulletin. 1919;30:104.
- Caton AJ, Brownlee GG, Yewdell JW, Gerhard W. The antigenic structure of the influenza virus A/PR/8/34 hemagglutinin (H1 subtype). Cell. 1982;31:417–27.
- Raymond F, Caton A, Cox N, Kendal AP, Brownlee GG. The antigenicity and evolution of influenza H1 haemagglutinin, from 1950–57 and 1977–1983: two pathways from one gene. Virology. 1986;148:275–87.
- Matrosovich M, Gambaryan A, Teneberg S, Piskarev VE, Yamnikova SS, Lvov DK, Avian influenza A viruses differ from human viruses by recognition of sialyloigosaccharides and gangliosides and by a higher conservation of the HA receptor-binding site. Virology. 1997;233:224–34.
- Rogers G, D’Souza B. Receptor binding properties of human and animal H1 influenza virus isolates. Virology. 1989;173:317–22.
- Matrosovich MN, Gambaryan AS, Tuzikov AB, Byramova NE, Mochalova LV, Golbraikh AA, Probing of the receptor-binding sites of the H1 and H3 influenza A and influenza B virus hemagglutinins by synthetic and natural sialosides. Virology. 1993;196:111–21.
- Matrosovich M, Tuzikov A, Bovin N, Gambaryan A, Klimov A, Castrucci MR. etal. Early alterations of the receptor-binding properties of H1, H2, and H3 avian influenza virus hemagglutinins after their introduction into mammals. J Virol. 2000;74:8502–12.
- Coiras MT, Aguilar JC, Galiano M, Carlos S, Gregory V, Lin YP, Rapid molecular analysis of the haemagglutinin gene of human influenza A H3N2 viruses isolated in Spain from 1996 to 2000. Arch Virol. 2001;146:2133–47.
- Macken C, Lu H, Goodman J, Boykin L. The value of a database in surveillance and vaccine selection. In: Osterhaus A, Cox N, Hampson A, editors. Options for the control of influenza IV. Amsterdam: Excerpta Medica; 2001. p. 103–6.
- Reid AH, Taubenberger JK. The 1918 flu and other influenza pandemics: “over there” and back again. Lab Invest. 1999;79:95–101.
- Fosso C. Alone with death on the Tundra. In: Hedin R, Holthaus G, editors. Alaska: Reflections on land and spirit. Tucscon (AZ): University of Arizona Press; 1989. p. 215–22.
- Connor R, Kawaoka Y, Webster R, Paulson J. Receptor specificity in human, avian, and equine H2 and H3 influenza virus isolates. Virology. 1994;205:17–23.
- Gensheimer KF, Fukuda K, Brammer L, Cox N, Patriarca PA, Strikes RA. Preparing for pandemic influenza: the need for enhanced surveillance. Vaccine. 2002;20(Suppl 2):S63–5.
- Hayden FG. Perspectives on antiviral use during pandemic influenza. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2001;356:1877–84.
Page created: January 10, 2011
Page updated: January 10, 2011
Page reviewed: January 10, 2011
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.