Volume 9, Number 5—May 2003
Global Illness and Deaths Caused by Rotavirus Disease in Children
|Country (reference)||Y||Annual incidence/per 100,000 children||Cumulative incidence by 5 y of age|
|Spain (11)||1989–1995||250||1 in 80|
|Netherlands (12)||1998||270||1 in 74|
|United States (13)||1993–1995||274||1 in 73|
|Poland (14)||1996||310||1 in 65|
|Sweden (15)||1993–1996||370a||1 in 54|
|United Kingdom (16)||1993–1994||520||1 in 38|
|Finland (17)||1985–1995||610||1 in 33|
|Australia (18)||1993–1996||750||1 in 27|
|Hungary (19)||1993–1996||840a||1 in 24|
|Australia (20)||1991–1993||870||1 in 23|
aIncidence for children <4 years of age.
- De Zoysa I, Feachem RG. Interventions for the control of diarrhoeal disease among young children: rotavirus and cholera immunization. Bull World Health Organ. 1985;63:569–83.
- Parashar UD, Bresee JS, Gentsch JR, Glass RI. Rotavirus. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4:562–70.
- Bresee J, Glass RI, Ivanoff B, Gentsch J. Current status and future priorities for rotavirus vaccine development, evaluation, and implementation in developing countries. Vaccine. 1999;17:2207–22.
- Murphy TV, Gargiullo PM, Massoudi MS, Nelson DB, Jumaan AO, Okoro CA, Intussusception among infants given an oral rotavirus vaccine. N Engl J Med. 2001;344:564–72.
- Kosek M, Bern C, Guerrant RL. The magnitude of the global burden of diarrheal disease from studies published 1992–2000. Bull World Health Organ. 2003. In press.
- Miller MA, McCann L. Policy analysis of the use of hepatitis B, Haemophilus influenzae type b-, Streptococcus pneumoniae-conjugate, and rotavirus vaccines, in National Immunization Schedules. Health Econ. 2000;9:19–35.
- The sex and age distribution of the world’s populations: The 1994 revision. New York: United Nations; 1994.
- Ferreccio C, Prado V, Ojeda A, Cayyazo M, Abrego P, Guers L, Epidemiologic patterns of acute diarrhea and endemic Shigella infections in children in a poor periurban setting in Santiago, Chile. Am J Epidemiol. 1991;134:614–27.
- World Bank. Classification of economies by income, 2000. Available from: URL: http://www.worldbank.org/poverty/wdrpoverty/report/ch12b.pdf. [cited 2003 Feb 25].
- Punyaratabandhu P, Vathanophas K, Varavithya W, Sangchai R, Athipanyakom S, Echeverria P, Childhood diarrhoea in a low-income urban community in Bangkok: incidence, clinical features, and child caretaker’s behaviours. J Diarrhoeal Dis Res. 1991;9:244–9.
- Visser LE, Cano Portero R, Gay NJ, Martinez Navarro JF. Impact of rotavirus disease in Spain: an estimate of hospital admissions due to rotavirus. Acta Paediatr. 1999;88:S72–6.
- deWit MAS, Koopmans MPG, van der Blig JF, van Duynhoven YTHP. Hospital admissions for rotavirus infection in the Netherlands. Clin Infect Dis. 2000;31:698–704.
- Parashar UD, Holman RC, Clarke MJ, Bresee JS, Glass RI. Hospitalizations associated with rotavirus diarrhea in the United States, 1993 through 1995: surveillance based on the new ICD-9-CM rotavirus-specific diagnostic code. J Infect Dis. 1998;177:13–7.
- Mrukowicz JZ, Krobicka B, Duplaga M, Kowalska-Duplaga K, Domanski J, Szajewska H, Epidemiology and impact of rotavirus diarrhoea in Poland. Acta Paediatr. 1999;88:53–60.
- Johansen K, Bennet R, Bondesson K, Eriksson M, Hedlund KO, De Verdier Klingenberg K, Incidence and estimates of the disease burden of rotavirus in Sweden. Acta Paediatr. 1999;426:S20–3.
- Ryan MJ, Ramsay M, Brown D, Gay NJ, Farrington CP, Wall PG. Hospital admissions attributable to rotavirus infection in England and Wales. J Infect Dis. 1996;174(Suppl 1):S12–8.
- Vesikari T, Rautanen T, Bonsdorff CHV. Rotavirus gastroenteritis in Finland: burden of disease and epidemiological features. Acta Paediatr. 1999;426:S24–30.
- Carlin JB, Chondros P, Masendycz P, Bugg H, Bishop RF, Barnes GL. Rotavirus infection and rates of hospitalisation for acute gastroenteritis in young children in Australia, 1993‑1996. Med J Aust. 1998;169:252–6.
- Szucs G, Uj M, Mihaly I, Deak J. Burden of human rotavirus-associated hospitalizations in three geographic regions of Hungary. Acta Paediatr. 1999;426:S61–5.
- Ferson MJ. Hospitalizations for rotavirus gastroenteritis among children under five years of age in New South Wales. Med J Aust. 1996;164:273–6.
- Ford-Jones EL, Wang E, Petric M, Corey P, Moineddin R, Fearon M. Rotavirus-associated diarrhea in outpatient settings and child care centers. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2000;154:586–93.
- Rodriguez WJ, Kim HW, Brandt CD, Schwartz RH, Gardner MK, Jeffries B, Longitudinal study of rotavirus infection and gastroenteritis in families served by a pediatric medical practice: clinical and epidemiologic observations. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1987;6:170–6.
- Institute of Medicine. The prospects of immunizing against rotavirus. In: New vaccine development: diseases of importance in developing countries. Washington: National Academy Press; 1986: D13-1–D13-12.
- Victora CG, Bryce J, Fontaine O, Monasch R. Reducing deaths from diarrhoea through oral rehydration therapy. Bull World Health Organ. 2000;78:1246–55.
- de Onis M, Frongillo EA, Blossner M. Is malnutrition declining? An analysis of changes in levels of child malnutrition since 1980. Bull World Health Organ. 2000;78:1222–33.
- Snyder JD, Merson MH. The magnitude of the global problem of acute diarrhoeal disease: a review of active surveillance data. Bull World Health Organ. 1982;60:605–13.
- Miller P, Hirschhorn N. The effect of a national control of diarrheal diseases program on mortality: the case of Egypt. Soc Sci Med. 1995;40:S1–30.
- Langsten R, Hill K. Diarrhoeal disease, oral rehydration, and childhood mortality in rural Egypt. J Trop Pediatr. 1994;40:272–8.
- Villa S, Guiscafre H, Martinez H, Munoz O, Guiterrez G. Seasonal diarrhoeal mortality among Mexican Children. Bull World Health Organ. 1999;77:375–80.
- Cama RI, Parashar UD, Taylor DN, Hickey T, Figueroa D, Ortega YR, Enteropathogens and other factors associated with severe disease in children with acute watery diarrhea in Lima, Peru. J Infect Dis. 1999;179:1139–44.
- Nguyen VM, Nguyen VT, Huynh PL, Dang DT, Nguyen TH, Phan VT, The epidemiology and disease burden of rotavirus in Vietnam: sentinel surveillance at 6 hospitals. J Infect Dis. 2001;183:1707–12.
- Mobley CC, Boerma JT, Titus S, Lohrke B, Shangula K, Black RE. Validation study of a verbal autopsy method for causes of childhood mortality in Namibia. J Trop Pediatr. 1996;42:365–9.
- Kalter HD, Gray RH, Black RE, Gultiano SA. Validation of postmortem interviews to ascertain selected causes of death in children. Int J Epidemiol. 1990;19:380–6.
- Snow RW, Armstrong JR, Forster D, Winstanley MT, Marsh VM, Newton CR, Childhood deaths in Africa: uses and limitations of verbal autopsies. Lancet. 1992;340:351–5.
- Unicomb LE, Kilgore PE, Faruque SG, Hamadani JD, Fuchs GJ, Albert MJ, Anticipating rotavirus vaccines: hospital-based surveillance for rotavirus diarrhea and estimates of disease burden in Bangladesh. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1997;16:947–51.
- Ehrenkranz P, Lanata CF, Penny ME, Salazar-Lindo E, Glass RI. Rotavirus diarrhea disease burden in Peru: the need for a rotavirus vaccine and its potential cost savings. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2001;10:240–8.
- Jain V, Parashar UD, Glass RI, Bhan MK. Epidemiology of rotavirus in India. Indian J Pediatr. 2001;68:855–62.
Page created: December 08, 2010
Page updated: December 08, 2010
Page reviewed: December 08, 2010
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.