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Issue Cover for Volume 11, Number 4—April 2005

Volume 11, Number 4—April 2005

[PDF - 5.80 MB - 135 pages]

Perspective

Emerging Infectious Diseases: a 10-Year Perspective from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases [PDF - 229 KB - 8 pages]
A. S. Fauci et al.

Although optimists once imagined that serious infectious disease threats would by now be conquered, newly emerging (e.g., severe acute respiratory syndrome [SARS]), reemerging (e.g., West Nile virus), and even deliberately disseminated infectious diseases (e.g., anthrax bioterrorism) continue to appear throughout the world. Over the past decade, the global effort to identify and characterize infectious agents, decipher the underlying pathways by which they cause disease, and develop preventive measures and treatments for many of the world’s most dangerous pathogens has resulted in considerable progress. Intramural and extramural investigators supported by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease (NIAID) have contributed substantially to this effort. This review highlights selected NIAID-sponsored research advances over the past decade, with a focus on progress in combating HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, influenza, SARS, West Nile virus, and potential bioterror agents. Many basic research discoveries have been translated into novel diagnostics, antiviral and antimicrobial compounds, and vaccines, often with extraordinary speed.

EID Fauci AS, Touchette NA, Folkers GK. Emerging Infectious Diseases: a 10-Year Perspective from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(4):519-525. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1104.041167
AMA Fauci AS, Touchette NA, Folkers GK. Emerging Infectious Diseases: a 10-Year Perspective from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(4):519-525. doi:10.3201/eid1104.041167.
APA Fauci, A. S., Touchette, N. A., & Folkers, G. K. (2005). Emerging Infectious Diseases: a 10-Year Perspective from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(4), 519-525. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1104.041167.
Research

Recurring Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infections in a Football Team [PDF - 262 KB - 7 pages]
D. M. Nguyen et al.

An outbreak of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI) occurred in a college football team from August to September 2003. Eleven case-players were identified, and boils were the most common sign. Linemen had the highest attack rate (18%). Among 99 (93% of team) players with cultured specimens, 8 (8%) had positive MRSA nasal cultures. All available case-players’ MRSA isolates characterized had the community-associated pulsed-field type USA300. A case-control study found that sharing bars of soap and having preexisting cuts or abrasions were associated with infection. A carrier-control study found that having a locker near a teammate with an SSTI, sharing towels, and living on campus were associated with nasal carriage. Successful outbreak control measures included daily hexachlorophene showers and hygiene education.

EID Nguyen DM, Mascola L, Bancroft E. Recurring Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infections in a Football Team. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(4):526-532. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1104.041094
AMA Nguyen DM, Mascola L, Bancroft E. Recurring Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infections in a Football Team. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(4):526-532. doi:10.3201/eid1104.041094.
APA Nguyen, D. M., Mascola, L., & Bancroft, E. (2005). Recurring Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infections in a Football Team. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(4), 526-532. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1104.041094.

Bed Bug Infestations in an Urban Environment [PDF - 228 KB - 6 pages]
S. W. Hwang et al.

Until recently, bed bugs have been considered uncommon in the industrialized world. This study determined the extent of reemerging bed bug infestations in homeless shelters and other locations in Toronto, Canada. Toronto Public Health documented complaints of bed bug infestations from 46 locations in 2003, most commonly apartments (63%), shelters (15%), and rooming houses (11%). Pest control operators in Toronto (N = 34) reported treating bed bug infestations at 847 locations in 2003, most commonly single-family dwellings (70%), apartments (18%), and shelters (8%). Bed bug infestations were reported at 20 (31%) of 65 homeless shelters. At 1 affected shelter, 4% of residents reported having bed bug bites. Bed bug infestations can have an adverse effect on health and quality of life in the general population, particularly among homeless persons living in shelters.

EID Hwang SW, Svoboda TJ, De Jong IJ, Kabasele KJ, Gogosis E. Bed Bug Infestations in an Urban Environment. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(4):533-538. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1104.041126
AMA Hwang SW, Svoboda TJ, De Jong IJ, et al. Bed Bug Infestations in an Urban Environment. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(4):533-538. doi:10.3201/eid1104.041126.
APA Hwang, S. W., Svoboda, T. J., De Jong, I. J., Kabasele, K. J., & Gogosis, E. (2005). Bed Bug Infestations in an Urban Environment. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(4), 533-538. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1104.041126.

Experimental Infection of Prairie Dogs with Monkeypox Virus [PDF - 467 KB - 7 pages]
S. Xiao et al.

Studies of experimental infection of prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) with monkeypox virus are described. After intraperitoneal infection, all of the animals died within 11 days. Virus was cultured from their blood and oropharynx several days before death; at necropsy, most of the organs tested contained monkeypox virus. Marked hepatic and splenic necrosis were observed, along with mild inflammatory changes in the lungs. After intranasal infection, the primary pathologic changes were in the lungs and pleural cavity. Some of the intranasally infected animals (40%) survived, and monkeypox virus could be cultured from their nasal discharge and oropharynx for <22 days. Ulcerative lesions also developed on the lips, tongue, and buccal mucosa of the surviving animals. Our findings support an earlier report, which suggested that infected prairie dogs can transmit monkeypox virus by respiratory and mucocutaneous contact with susceptible animals and persons.

EID Xiao S, Sbrana E, Watts DM, Siirin M, Travassos da Rosa AP, Tesh RB. Experimental Infection of Prairie Dogs with Monkeypox Virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(4):539-545. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1104.040907
AMA Xiao S, Sbrana E, Watts DM, et al. Experimental Infection of Prairie Dogs with Monkeypox Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(4):539-545. doi:10.3201/eid1104.040907.
APA Xiao, S., Sbrana, E., Watts, D. M., Siirin, M., Travassos da Rosa, A. P., & Tesh, R. B. (2005). Experimental Infection of Prairie Dogs with Monkeypox Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(4), 539-545. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1104.040907.

Antimicrobial-resistant Invasive Escherichia coli, Spain [PDF - 155 KB - 8 pages]
J. Oteo et al.

To address the public health problem of antimicrobial resistance, the European Union founded the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System. A network of 32 Spanish hospitals, serving ≈9.6 million persons, submitted antimicrobial-susceptibility data on 7,098 invasive Escherichia coli species (2001–2003). Resistance to ampicillin, cotrimoxazole, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and tobramycin was found at rates of 59.9%, 32.6%, 19.3%, 6.8%, and 5.3%, respectively. Resistance to multiple drugs increased from 13.8% in 2001 to 20.6% in 2003 (p < 0.0001). Antimicrobial consumption data were obtained from the Spanish National Health System. In spite of decreased cephalosporin and β-lactam use, overall extended-spectrum β-lactamase production increased from 1.6% (2001) to 4.1% (2003) (p < 0.0001), mainly due to the rising prevalence of cefotaximases. Resistance to ciprofloxacin significantly increased, mostly in community-onset infections, which coincided with a rise in community quinolone use. Cotrimoxazole resistance remained stable at ≈30%, even though its use was dramatically reduced.

EID Oteo J, Lázaro E, de Abajo FJ, Baquero F, Campos J. Antimicrobial-resistant Invasive Escherichia coli, Spain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(4):546-553. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1104.040699
AMA Oteo J, Lázaro E, de Abajo FJ, et al. Antimicrobial-resistant Invasive Escherichia coli, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(4):546-553. doi:10.3201/eid1104.040699.
APA Oteo, J., Lázaro, E., de Abajo, F. J., Baquero, F., & Campos, J. (2005). Antimicrobial-resistant Invasive Escherichia coli, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(4), 546-553. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1104.040699.

Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia, Australia [PDF - 201 KB - 8 pages]
P. Collignon et al.

Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) is common and increasing worldwide. A retrospective review was undertaken to quantify the number of cases, their place of acquisition, and the proportions caused by methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in 17 hospitals in Australia. Of 3,192 episodes, 1,571 (49%) were community onset. MRSA caused 40% of hospital-onset episodes and 12% of community-onset episodes. The median rate of SAB was 1.48/1,000 admissions (range 0.61–3.24; median rate for hospital-onset SAB was 0.7/1,000 and for community onset 0.8/1,000 admissions). Using these rates, we estimate that ≈6,900 episodes of SAB occur annually in Australia (35/100,000 population). SAB is common, and a substantial proportion of cases may be preventable. The epidemiology is evolving, with >10% of community-onset SAB now caused by MRSA. This is an emerging infectious disease concern and is likely to impact on empiric antimicrobial drug prescribing in suspected cases of SAB.

EID Collignon P, Nimmo GR, Gottlieb T, Gosbell IB. Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia, Australia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(4):554-561. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1104.040772
AMA Collignon P, Nimmo GR, Gottlieb T, et al. Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(4):554-561. doi:10.3201/eid1104.040772.
APA Collignon, P., Nimmo, G. R., Gottlieb, T., & Gosbell, I. B. (2005). Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(4), 554-561. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1104.040772.

Echovirus 30, Jiangsu Province, China [PDF - 129 KB - 6 pages]
Y. N. Zhao et al.

An outbreak of aseptic meningitis occurred in the northern area of Jiangsu Province in China from January to July in 2003. A total of 1,681 cases were involved in this outbreak, and 99% of patients were <15 years of age. To identify the etiologic agent, 66 cerebrospinal fluid specimens were tested by cell culture. Eighteen showed an enteroviruslike cytopathic effect on MRC-5 human fetal diploid lung cells. An enterovirus primer-mediated reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction, a standard neutralization assay, and sequencing of the complete capsid-encoding (VP1) gene identified the 18 isolates (FDJS03) as echovirus 30. At least a 10% difference was seen in nucleotide sequences of VP1 between FDJS03 isolates and other global strains of echovirus 30. Phylogenetic analysis based on complete sequences of VP1 was performed to further characterize the FDJS03 isolates. This report is the first to identify a distinct lineage of echovirus 30 as a probable cause of this outbreak.

EID Zhao YN, Jiang QW, Jiang RJ, Chen L, Perlin DS. Echovirus 30, Jiangsu Province, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(4):562-567. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1104.040995
AMA Zhao YN, Jiang QW, Jiang RJ, et al. Echovirus 30, Jiangsu Province, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(4):562-567. doi:10.3201/eid1104.040995.
APA Zhao, Y. N., Jiang, Q. W., Jiang, R. J., Chen, L., & Perlin, D. S. (2005). Echovirus 30, Jiangsu Province, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(4), 562-567. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1104.040995.

Reemergence of Canine Echinococcus granulosus Infection, Wales [PDF - 61 KB - 4 pages]
I. Buishi et al.

As a consequence of large-scale outdoor slaughter of sheep during the 2001 foot and mouth disease (FMD) outbreak in the United Kingdom and the possibility of increased risk for transmission of Echinococcus granulosus between sheep and dogs, a large survey of canine echinococcosis was undertaken in mid-Wales in 2002. An Echinococcus coproantigen-positive rate of 8.0% (94/1,164) was recorded on 22% of farms surveyed, which compares to a rate of 3.4% obtained in the same region in 1993. Positivity rates between FMD-affected properties and unaffected ones did not differ significantly. Significant risk factors for positive results in farm dogs were allowing dogs to roam free and the infrequent dosing (>4-month intervals) of dogs with praziquantel. When these data are compared to those of a previous pilot hydatid control program in the area (1983–1989), an increase in transmission to humans appears probable.

EID Buishi I, Walters T, Guildea Z, Craig PS, Palmer S. Reemergence of Canine Echinococcus granulosus Infection, Wales. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(4):568-571. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1104.040178
AMA Buishi I, Walters T, Guildea Z, et al. Reemergence of Canine Echinococcus granulosus Infection, Wales. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(4):568-571. doi:10.3201/eid1104.040178.
APA Buishi, I., Walters, T., Guildea, Z., Craig, P. S., & Palmer, S. (2005). Reemergence of Canine Echinococcus granulosus Infection, Wales. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(4), 568-571. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1104.040178.

European Bat Lyssavirus in Scottish Bats [PDF - 332 KB - 7 pages]
S. M. Brookes et al.

We report the first seroprevalence study of the occurrence of specific antibodies to European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2) in Daubenton bats. Bats were captured from 19 sites across eastern and southern Scotland. Samples from 198 Daubenton bats, 20 Natterer bats, and 6 Pipistrelle bats were investigated for the presence of EBLV-2. Blood samples (N = 94) were subjected to a modified fluorescent antibody virus neutralization test to determine antibody titer. From 0.05% to 3.8% (95% confidence interval) of Daubenton bats were seropositive. Antibodies to EBLV-2 were not detected in the 2 other species tested. Mouth swabs (N = 218) were obtained, and RNA was extracted for a reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The RT-PCR included pan lyssavirus-primers (N gene) and internal PCR control primers for ribosomal RNA. EBLV-2 RNA was not detected in any of the saliva samples tested, and live virus was not detected in virus isolation tests.

EID Brookes SM, Aegerter JN, Smith GC, Healy DM, Jolliffe TA, Swift SM, et al. European Bat Lyssavirus in Scottish Bats. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(4):572-578. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1104.040920
AMA Brookes SM, Aegerter JN, Smith GC, et al. European Bat Lyssavirus in Scottish Bats. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(4):572-578. doi:10.3201/eid1104.040920.
APA Brookes, S. M., Aegerter, J. N., Smith, G. C., Healy, D. M., Jolliffe, T. A., Swift, S. M....Fooks, A. R. (2005). European Bat Lyssavirus in Scottish Bats. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(4), 572-578. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1104.040920.

Influenza Outbreak Control in Confined Settings [PDF - 237 KB - 5 pages]
R. D. Balicer et al.

Influenza may rapidly disseminate within populations living in confined settings, causing considerable morbidity and disrupting daily activities. We describe an influenza A outbreak on a military base where 3,000young adults, most of whom were unvaccinated, lived in close daily contact. The presentation to the base clinic of 48 cases of acute respiratory illness within 2 days allowed early identification of this outbreak and prompted immediate epidemiologic investigation. Overall, 85 personnel (2.83% of base population) met the case definition for influenzalike illness. On-site laboratory confirmation with field detection kits, rapid implementation of respiratory illness control protocols, and a mass vaccination campaign were applied to limit disease dissemination. The outbreak was halted 14 days after the mass vaccination campaign was completed. We review the control measures available for controlling influenza outbreaks in confined settings and discuss the role of rapid mass vaccination within this context

EID Balicer RD, Huerta M, Levy Y, Davidovitch N, Grotto I. Influenza Outbreak Control in Confined Settings. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(4):579-583. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1104.040845
AMA Balicer RD, Huerta M, Levy Y, et al. Influenza Outbreak Control in Confined Settings. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(4):579-583. doi:10.3201/eid1104.040845.
APA Balicer, R. D., Huerta, M., Levy, Y., Davidovitch, N., & Grotto, I. (2005). Influenza Outbreak Control in Confined Settings. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(4), 579-583. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1104.040845.

Buruli Ulcer Recurrence, Benin [PDF - 155 KB - 6 pages]
M. Debacker et al.

Buruli ulcer is a recognized public health problem in West Africa. In Benin, from 1989 to 2001, the Centre Sanitaire et Nutritionnel Gbemoten (CSNG) treated >2,500 Buruli ulcer patients. From March 2000 to February 2001, field trips were conducted in the Zou and Atlantique regions. The choice of the 2 regions was based on the distance from CSNG and on villages with the highest number of patients treated at CSNG. A total of 66 (44.0%) of 150 former patients treated at CSNG were located in the visited villages. The recurrence rate of CSNG-treated patients after a follow-up period of up to 7 years was low (6.1%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.0–15.6). We attribute this low rate to the high quality of Buruli ulcer treatment at an accessible regional center (CSNG). The World Health Organization definition of a Buruli ulcer recurrent case should be revised to include a follow-up period >1 year.

EID Debacker M, Aguiar J, Steunou C, Zinsou C, Meyers WM, Portaels F. Buruli Ulcer Recurrence, Benin. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(4):584-589. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1104.041000
AMA Debacker M, Aguiar J, Steunou C, et al. Buruli Ulcer Recurrence, Benin. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(4):584-589. doi:10.3201/eid1104.041000.
APA Debacker, M., Aguiar, J., Steunou, C., Zinsou, C., Meyers, W. M., & Portaels, F. (2005). Buruli Ulcer Recurrence, Benin. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(4), 584-589. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1104.041000.

Childhood Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome, United Kingdom and Ireland [PDF - 198 KB - 7 pages]
R. M. Lynn et al.

We conducted prospective surveillance of childhood hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) from 1997 to 2001 to describe disease incidence and clinical, epidemiologic and microbiologic characteristics. We compared our findings, where possible, with those of a previous study conducted from 1985 to 1988. The average annual incidence of HUS for the United Kingdom and Ireland (0.71/100,000) was unchanged from 1985 to 1988. The overall early mortality had halved, but the reduction in mortality was almost entirely accounted for by improved outcome in patients with diarrhea-associated HUS. The principal infective cause of diarrhea-associated HUS was Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli O157 (STEC O157), although in the 1997–2001 survey STEC O157 phage type (PT) 21/28 had replaced STEC O157 PT2 as the predominant PT. The risk of developing diarrhea-associated HUS was significantly higher in children infected with STEC O157 PT 2 and PT 21/28 compared with other PTs. Hypertension as a complication of HUS was greatly reduced in patients with diarrhea-associated HUS.

EID Lynn RM, O’Brien SJ, Taylor CM, Adak GK, Chart H, Cheasty T, et al. Childhood Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome, United Kingdom and Ireland. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(4):590-596. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1104.040833
AMA Lynn RM, O’Brien SJ, Taylor CM, et al. Childhood Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome, United Kingdom and Ireland. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(4):590-596. doi:10.3201/eid1104.040833.
APA Lynn, R. M., O’Brien, S. J., Taylor, C. M., Adak, G. K., Chart, H., Cheasty, T....Willshaw, G. A. (2005). Childhood Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome, United Kingdom and Ireland. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(4), 590-596. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1104.040833.

Tuberculosis Elimination in the Netherlands [PDF - 228 KB - 6 pages]
M. W. Borgdorff et al.

This study assessed progress towards tuberculosis (TB) elimination in the Netherlands by using DNA fingerprinting. Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains were defined as new if the IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism pattern had not been observed in any other patient during the previous 2 years. Other cases were defined as clustered and attributed to recent transmission. In the period 1995–2002, the incidence of TB with new strains was stable among non-Dutch residents and declined among the Dutch. However, the decline among the Dutch was restricted to those >65 years of age. Moreover, the average number of secondary cases per new strain did not change significantly over time. We conclude that the decline of TB in the Netherlands over the past decade was mainly the result of a cohort effect: older birth cohorts with high infection prevalence were replaced by those with lower infection prevalence. Under current epidemiologic conditions and control efforts, TB may not be eliminated.

EID Borgdorff MW, van der Werf M, de Haas PE, Kremer K, van Soolingen D. Tuberculosis Elimination in the Netherlands. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(4):597-602. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1104.041103
AMA Borgdorff MW, van der Werf M, de Haas PE, et al. Tuberculosis Elimination in the Netherlands. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(4):597-602. doi:10.3201/eid1104.041103.
APA Borgdorff, M. W., van der Werf, M., de Haas, P. E., Kremer, K., & van Soolingen, D. (2005). Tuberculosis Elimination in the Netherlands. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(4), 597-602. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1104.041103.

Epidemiology of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Outbreaks, United States, 1982–2002 [PDF - 215 KB - 7 pages]
J. M. Rangel et al.

Escherichia coli O157:H7 causes 73,000 illnesses in the United States annually. We reviewed E. coli O157 outbreaks reported to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to better understand the epidemiology of E. coli O157. E. coli O157 outbreaks (>2 cases of E. coli O157 infection with a common epidemiologic exposure) reported to CDC from 1982 to 2002 were reviewed. In that period, 49 states reported 350 outbreaks, representing 8,598 cases, 1,493 (17%) hospitalizations, 354 (4%) hemolytic uremic syndrome cases, and 40 (0.5%) deaths. Transmission route for 183 (52%) was foodborne, 74 (21%) unknown, 50 (14%) person-to-person, 31 (9%) waterborne, 11 (3%) animal contact, and 1 (0.3%) laboratory-related. The food vehicle for 75 (41%) foodborne outbreaks was ground beef, and for 38 (21%) outbreaks, produce.

EID Rangel JM, Sparling PH, Crowe C, Griffin PM, Swerdlow DL. Epidemiology of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Outbreaks, United States, 1982–2002. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(4):603-609. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1104.040739
AMA Rangel JM, Sparling PH, Crowe C, et al. Epidemiology of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Outbreaks, United States, 1982–2002. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(4):603-609. doi:10.3201/eid1104.040739.
APA Rangel, J. M., Sparling, P. H., Crowe, C., Griffin, P. M., & Swerdlow, D. L. (2005). Epidemiology of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Outbreaks, United States, 1982–2002. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(4), 603-609. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1104.040739.
Dispatches

Web-based Investigation of Multistate Salmonellosis Outbreak [PDF - 79 KB - 3 pages]
P. Srikantiah et al.

We investigated a large outbreak of Salmonella enterica serotype Javiana among attendees of the 2002 U.S. Transplant Games, including 1,500 organ transplant recipients. Web-based survey methods identified pre-diced tomatoes as the source of this outbreak, which highlights the utility of such investigative tools to cope with the changing epidemiology of foodborne diseases.

EID Srikantiah P, Bodager D, Toth B, Kass-Hout T, Hammond R, Stenzel S, et al. Web-based Investigation of Multistate Salmonellosis Outbreak. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(4):610-612. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1104.040997
AMA Srikantiah P, Bodager D, Toth B, et al. Web-based Investigation of Multistate Salmonellosis Outbreak. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(4):610-612. doi:10.3201/eid1104.040997.
APA Srikantiah, P., Bodager, D., Toth, B., Kass-Hout, T., Hammond, R., Stenzel, S....Mead, P. S. (2005). Web-based Investigation of Multistate Salmonellosis Outbreak. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(4), 610-612. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1104.040997.

Ross River Virus Disease Reemergence, Fiji, 2003–2004 [PDF - 71 KB - 3 pages]
P. Klapsing et al.

We report 2 clinically characteristic and serologically positive cases of Ross River virus infection in Canadian tourists who visited Fiji in late 2003 and early 2004. This report suggests that Ross River virus is once again circulating in Fiji, where it apparently disappeared after causing an epidemic in 1979 to 1980.

EID Klapsing P, MacLean JD, Glaze S, McClean KL, Drebot MA, Lanciotti RS, et al. Ross River Virus Disease Reemergence, Fiji, 2003–2004. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(4):613-615. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1104.041070
AMA Klapsing P, MacLean JD, Glaze S, et al. Ross River Virus Disease Reemergence, Fiji, 2003–2004. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(4):613-615. doi:10.3201/eid1104.041070.
APA Klapsing, P., MacLean, J. D., Glaze, S., McClean, K. L., Drebot, M. A., Lanciotti, R. S....Campbell, G. L. (2005). Ross River Virus Disease Reemergence, Fiji, 2003–2004. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(4), 613-615. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1104.041070.

Mycobacteria in Nail Salon Whirlpool Footbaths, California [PDF - 92 KB - 3 pages]
D. J. Vugia et al.

In 2000, an outbreak of Mycobacterium fortuitum furunculosis affected customers using whirlpool footbaths at a nail salon. We swabbed 30 footbaths in 18 nail salons from 5 California counties and found mycobacteria in 29 (97%); M. fortuitum was the most common. Mycobacteria may pose an infectious risk for pedicure customers.

EID Vugia DJ, Jang Y, Zizek C, Ely J, Winthrop KL, Desmond E. Mycobacteria in Nail Salon Whirlpool Footbaths, California. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(4):616-618. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1104.040936
AMA Vugia DJ, Jang Y, Zizek C, et al. Mycobacteria in Nail Salon Whirlpool Footbaths, California. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(4):616-618. doi:10.3201/eid1104.040936.
APA Vugia, D. J., Jang, Y., Zizek, C., Ely, J., Winthrop, K. L., & Desmond, E. (2005). Mycobacteria in Nail Salon Whirlpool Footbaths, California. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(4), 616-618. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1104.040936.

Coxiella burnetii in Bulk Tank Milk Samples, United States [PDF - 71 KB - 3 pages]
S. G. Kim et al.

Dairy cattle are a primary reservoir of Coxiella burnetii, which causes Q fever. However, no recent nationwide studies have assessed the prevalence and risks of Q fever in dairy cattle. We report >94% prevalence in samples of bulk tank milk from US dairy herds tested during the past 3 years.

EID Kim SG, Kim EH, Lafferty CJ, Dubovi E. Coxiella burnetii in Bulk Tank Milk Samples, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(4):619-621. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1104.041036
AMA Kim SG, Kim EH, Lafferty CJ, et al. Coxiella burnetii in Bulk Tank Milk Samples, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(4):619-621. doi:10.3201/eid1104.041036.
APA Kim, S. G., Kim, E. H., Lafferty, C. J., & Dubovi, E. (2005). Coxiella burnetii in Bulk Tank Milk Samples, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(4), 619-621. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1104.041036.

Human Spotted Fever Rickettsial Infections [PDF - 88 KB - 3 pages]
G. B. Schoeler et al.

Serum specimens from patients at 4 sites in Peru were tested for evidence of spotted fever group rickettsial infection. Results showed that 30 (18%) of 170 patients had spotted fever group rickettsial infections, which likely caused their illnesses. These findings document laboratory-confirmed spotted fever from diverse areas of Peru.

EID Schoeler GB, Morón C, Richards AL, Blair PJ, Olson JG. Human Spotted Fever Rickettsial Infections. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(4):622-624. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1104.040287
AMA Schoeler GB, Morón C, Richards AL, et al. Human Spotted Fever Rickettsial Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(4):622-624. doi:10.3201/eid1104.040287.
APA Schoeler, G. B., Morón, C., Richards, A. L., Blair, P. J., & Olson, J. G. (2005). Human Spotted Fever Rickettsial Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(4), 622-624. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1104.040287.

Patient Contact Recall after SARS Exposure [PDF - 133 KB - 4 pages]
P. Dimoulas et al.

We reinterviewed healthcare workers who had been exposed to a patient with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in an intensive care unit to evaluate the effect of time on recall reliability and willingness to report contact activities and infection control precautions. Healthcare workers reliably recalled events 6 months after exposure.

EID Dimoulas P, Green KA, Shigayeva A, Aquino M, McGeer A, Scales DC. Patient Contact Recall after SARS Exposure. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(4):625-628. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1104.040648
AMA Dimoulas P, Green KA, Shigayeva A, et al. Patient Contact Recall after SARS Exposure. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(4):625-628. doi:10.3201/eid1104.040648.
APA Dimoulas, P., Green, K. A., Shigayeva, A., Aquino, M., McGeer, A., & Scales, D. C. (2005). Patient Contact Recall after SARS Exposure. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(4), 625-628. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1104.040648.

Molecular Mechanisms of West Nile Virus Pathogenesis in Brain Cells [PDF - 98 KB - 4 pages]
W. Koh and M. Ng

We analyzed the response of human glioma cells to West Nile virus infection by investigating host transcriptional changes. Changes in expression of 23 genes showed similarities to those in other neurodegenerative diseases. These changes may be useful as potential biomarkers and elucidate novel mechanisms behind the neuropathology of infection with this virus.

EID Koh W, Ng M. Molecular Mechanisms of West Nile Virus Pathogenesis in Brain Cells. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(4):629-632. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1104.041076
AMA Koh W, Ng M. Molecular Mechanisms of West Nile Virus Pathogenesis in Brain Cells. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(4):629-632. doi:10.3201/eid1104.041076.
APA Koh, W., & Ng, M. (2005). Molecular Mechanisms of West Nile Virus Pathogenesis in Brain Cells. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(4), 629-632. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1104.041076.
Letters

Tickborne Meningoencephalitis, First Case after 19 Years in Northeastern Germany [PDF - 64 KB - 2 pages]
C. J. Hemmer et al.
EID Hemmer CJ, Littmann M, Löbermann M, Lafrenz M, Böttcher T, Reisinger EC. Tickborne Meningoencephalitis, First Case after 19 Years in Northeastern Germany. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(4):633-634. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1104.041110
AMA Hemmer CJ, Littmann M, Löbermann M, et al. Tickborne Meningoencephalitis, First Case after 19 Years in Northeastern Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(4):633-634. doi:10.3201/eid1104.041110.
APA Hemmer, C. J., Littmann, M., Löbermann, M., Lafrenz, M., Böttcher, T., & Reisinger, E. C. (2005). Tickborne Meningoencephalitis, First Case after 19 Years in Northeastern Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(4), 633-634. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1104.041110.

Social Impact of Leishmaniasis, Afghanistan [PDF - 34 KB - 3 pages]
R. Reithinger et al.
EID Reithinger R, Aadil K, Kolaczinski J, Mohsen M, Hami S. Social Impact of Leishmaniasis, Afghanistan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(4):634-636. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1104.040945
AMA Reithinger R, Aadil K, Kolaczinski J, et al. Social Impact of Leishmaniasis, Afghanistan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(4):634-636. doi:10.3201/eid1104.040945.
APA Reithinger, R., Aadil, K., Kolaczinski, J., Mohsen, M., & Hami, S. (2005). Social Impact of Leishmaniasis, Afghanistan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(4), 634-636. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1104.040945.

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Toxic Shock Syndrome [PDF - 28 KB - 2 pages]
S. Jamart et al.
EID Jamart S, Denis O, Deplano A, Tragas G, Vandergheynst A, De Bels D, et al. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Toxic Shock Syndrome. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(4):636-637. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1104.040893
AMA Jamart S, Denis O, Deplano A, et al. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Toxic Shock Syndrome. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(4):636-637. doi:10.3201/eid1104.040893.
APA Jamart, S., Denis, O., Deplano, A., Tragas, G., Vandergheynst, A., De Bels, D....Devriendt, J. (2005). Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Toxic Shock Syndrome. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(4), 636-637. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1104.040893.

Are SARS Superspreaders Cloud Adults? [PDF - 23 KB - 2 pages]
S. Bassetti et al.
EID Bassetti S, Bischoff WE, Sherertz RJ. Are SARS Superspreaders Cloud Adults?. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(4):637-638. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1104.040639
AMA Bassetti S, Bischoff WE, Sherertz RJ. Are SARS Superspreaders Cloud Adults?. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(4):637-638. doi:10.3201/eid1104.040639.
APA Bassetti, S., Bischoff, W. E., & Sherertz, R. J. (2005). Are SARS Superspreaders Cloud Adults?. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(4), 637-638. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1104.040639.

Route of Infection in Melioidosis [PDF - 51 KB - 2 pages]
J. L. Barnes and N. Ketheesan
EID Barnes JL, Ketheesan N. Route of Infection in Melioidosis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(4):638-639. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1104.041051
AMA Barnes JL, Ketheesan N. Route of Infection in Melioidosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(4):638-639. doi:10.3201/eid1104.041051.
APA Barnes, J. L., & Ketheesan, N. (2005). Route of Infection in Melioidosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(4), 638-639. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1104.041051.

Bordetella pertussis in Adult Pneumonia Patients1 [PDF - 66 KB - 3 pages]
K. A. Beynon et al.
EID Beynon KA, Young SA, Laing RT, Harrison TG, Anderson TP, Murdoch DR. Bordetella pertussis in Adult Pneumonia Patients1. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(4):639-641. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1104.040822
AMA Beynon KA, Young SA, Laing RT, et al. Bordetella pertussis in Adult Pneumonia Patients1. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(4):639-641. doi:10.3201/eid1104.040822.
APA Beynon, K. A., Young, S. A., Laing, R. T., Harrison, T. G., Anderson, T. P., & Murdoch, D. R. (2005). Bordetella pertussis in Adult Pneumonia Patients1. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(4), 639-641. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1104.040822.

SARS Risk Perception and Preventive Measures, Singapore and Japan [PDF - 84 KB - 2 pages]
D. Koh et al.
EID Koh D, Takahashi K, Lim M, Imai T, Chia S, Qian F, et al. SARS Risk Perception and Preventive Measures, Singapore and Japan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(4):641-642. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1104.040765
AMA Koh D, Takahashi K, Lim M, et al. SARS Risk Perception and Preventive Measures, Singapore and Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(4):641-642. doi:10.3201/eid1104.040765.
APA Koh, D., Takahashi, K., Lim, M., Imai, T., Chia, S., Qian, F....Fones, C. (2005). SARS Risk Perception and Preventive Measures, Singapore and Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(4), 641-642. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1104.040765.
Books and Media

Pathogenic Fungi—Structural Biology and Taxonomy [PDF - 44 KB - 1 page]
E. Reiss
EID Reiss E. Pathogenic Fungi—Structural Biology and Taxonomy. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(4):643. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1104.041291
AMA Reiss E. Pathogenic Fungi—Structural Biology and Taxonomy. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(4):643. doi:10.3201/eid1104.041291.
APA Reiss, E. (2005). Pathogenic Fungi—Structural Biology and Taxonomy. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(4), 643. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1104.041291.
About the Cover

Fearsome Creatures and Nature's Gothic [PDF - 97 KB - 2 pages]
P. Potter
EID Potter P. Fearsome Creatures and Nature's Gothic. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(4):644-645. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1104.ac1104
AMA Potter P. Fearsome Creatures and Nature's Gothic. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(4):644-645. doi:10.3201/eid1104.ac1104.
APA Potter, P. (2005). Fearsome Creatures and Nature's Gothic. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(4), 644-645. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1104.ac1104.
Conference Summaries

Workshop on Carbohydrate Moieties as Vaccine Candidates
C. E. Taylor

Third Congress for the European Society for Emerging Infections
M. Mavris and L. Halos

SARS Coronaviruses and Highly Pathogenic Influenza Viruses: Safety and Occupational Health for Laboratory Workers
J. Taylor et al.
Page created: July 10, 2012
Page updated: July 10, 2012
Page reviewed: July 10, 2012
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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