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Volume 5, Number 6—December 1999

Volume 5, Number 6—December 1999   PDF Version [PDF - 2.47 MB - 117 pages]

Perspective

  • Emerging Infectious Diseases and Amphibian Population Declines PDF Version [PDF - 515 KB - 14 pages]
    P. Daszak et al.
        View Abstract

    We review recent research on the pathology, ecology, and biogeography of two emerging infectious wildlife diseases, chytridiomycosis and ranaviral disease, in the context of host-parasite population biology. We examine the role of these diseases in the global decline of amphibian populations and propose hypotheses for the origins and impact of these panzootics. Finally, we discuss emerging infectious diseases as a global threat to wildlife populations.

        Cite This Article
    EID Daszak P, Berger L, Cunningham AA, Hyatt AD, Green DE, Speare R, et al. Emerging Infectious Diseases and Amphibian Population Declines. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999;5(6):735-748. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0506.990601
    AMA Daszak P, Berger L, Cunningham AA, et al. Emerging Infectious Diseases and Amphibian Population Declines. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1999;5(6):735-748. doi:10.3201/eid0506.990601.
    APA Daszak, P., Berger, L., Cunningham, A. A., Hyatt, A. D., Green, D. E., & Speare, R. (1999). Emerging Infectious Diseases and Amphibian Population Declines. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 5(6), 735-748. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0506.990601.
  • Development of Orphan Vaccines: An Industry Perspective PDF Version [PDF - 78 KB - 8 pages]
    J. Lang and S. C. Wood
        View Abstract

    The development of vaccines against rare emerging infectious diseases is hampered by many disincentives. In the face of growing in-house expenditures associated with research and development projects in a complex legal and regulatory environment, most pharmaceutical companies prioritize their projects and streamline their product portfolio. Nevertheless, for humanitarian reasons, there is a need to develop niche vaccines for rare diseases not preventable or curable by other means. The U.S. Orphan Drug Act of 1983 and a similar proposal from the European Commission (currently under legislative approval) provide financial and practical incentives for the research and development of drugs to treat rare diseases. In addition, updated epidemiologic information from experts in the field of emerging diseases; increased disease awareness among health professionals, patients, and the general public; a list of priority vaccines; emergence of a dedicated organization with strong leadership; and the long-term pharmacoeconomic viability of orphan products will be key factors in overcoming the complexity of orphan status and the limited need for vaccine.

        Cite This Article
    EID Lang J, Wood SC. Development of Orphan Vaccines: An Industry Perspective. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999;5(6):749-756. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0506.990602
    AMA Lang J, Wood SC. Development of Orphan Vaccines: An Industry Perspective. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1999;5(6):749-756. doi:10.3201/eid0506.990602.
    APA Lang, J., & Wood, S. C. (1999). Development of Orphan Vaccines: An Industry Perspective. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 5(6), 749-756. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0506.990602.

Synopses

  • Antimicrobial Resistance with Streptococcus pneumoniae in the United States, 1997–98 PDF Version [PDF - 92 KB - 9 pages]
    G. V. Doern et al.
        View Abstract

    From November 1997 to April 1998, 1,601 clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae were obtained from 34 U.S. medical centers. The overall rate of strains showing resistance to penicillin was 29.5%, with 17.4% having intermediate resistance. Multidrug resistance, defined as lack of susceptibility to penicillin and at least two other non-ß-lactam classes of antimicrobial drugs, was observed in 16.0% of isolates. Resistance to all 10 ß-lactam drugs examined in this study was directly related to the level of penicillin resistance. Penicillin resistance rates were highest in isolates from middle ear fluid and sinus aspirates of children <5 years of age and from patients in ambulatory-care settings. Twenty-four of the 34 medical centers in this study had participated in a similar study 3 years before. In 19 of these 24 centers, penicillin resistance rates increased 2.9% to 39.2%. Similar increases were observed with rates of resistance to other antimicrobial drugs.

        Cite This Article
    EID Doern GV, Brueggemann AB, Huynh H, Wingert E, Rhomberg P. Antimicrobial Resistance with Streptococcus pneumoniae in the United States, 1997–98. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999;5(6):757-765. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0506.990603
    AMA Doern GV, Brueggemann AB, Huynh H, et al. Antimicrobial Resistance with Streptococcus pneumoniae in the United States, 1997–98. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1999;5(6):757-765. doi:10.3201/eid0506.990603.
    APA Doern, G. V., Brueggemann, A. B., Huynh, H., Wingert, E., & Rhomberg, P. (1999). Antimicrobial Resistance with Streptococcus pneumoniae in the United States, 1997–98. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 5(6), 757-765. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0506.990603.

Research

  • Epidemiologic Studies of Cyclospora cayetanensis in Guatemala PDF Version [PDF - 102 KB - 9 pages]
    C. Bern et al.
        View Abstract

    In 1996 and 1997, cyclosporiasis outbreaks in North America were linked to eating Guatemalan raspberries. We conducted a study in health-care facilities and among raspberry farm workers, as well as a case-control study, to assess risk factors for the disease in Guatemala. From April 6, 1997, to March 19, 1998, 126 (2.3%) of 5,552 surveillance specimens tested positive for Cyclospora; prevalence peaked in June (6.7%). Infection was most common among children 1.5 to 9 years old and among persons with gastroenteritis. Among 182 raspberry farm workers and family members monitored from April 6 to May 29, six had Cyclospora infection. In the case-control analysis, 62 (91%) of 68 persons with Cyclospora infection reported drinking untreated water in the 2 weeks before illness, compared with 88 (73%) of 120 controls (odds ratio [OR] 3.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4, 10.8 by univariate analysis). Other risk factors included water source, type of sewage drainage, ownership of chickens or other fowl, and contact with soil (among children younger than 2 years).

        Cite This Article
    EID Bern C, Hernandez B, Lopez MB, Arrowood MJ, Alvarez de Mejia M, Maria de Merida A, et al. Epidemiologic Studies of Cyclospora cayetanensis in Guatemala. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999;5(6):766-774. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0506.990604
    AMA Bern C, Hernandez B, Lopez MB, et al. Epidemiologic Studies of Cyclospora cayetanensis in Guatemala. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1999;5(6):766-774. doi:10.3201/eid0506.990604.
    APA Bern, C., Hernandez, B., Lopez, M. B., Arrowood, M. J., Alvarez de Mejia, M., Maria de Merida, A....Klein, R. E. (1999). Epidemiologic Studies of Cyclospora cayetanensis in Guatemala. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 5(6), 766-774. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0506.990604.
  • Serologic Evidence of Human Monocytic and Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis in Israel PDF Version [PDF - 65 KB - 4 pages]
    A. Keysary et al.
        View Abstract

    We conducted a retrospective serosurvey of 1,000 persons in Israel who had fever of undetermined cause to look for Ehrlichia chaffeensis antibodies. Four of five cases with antibodies reactive to E. chaffeensis were diagnosed in the summer, when ticks are more active. All patients had influenzalike symptoms with high fever. None of the cases was fatal. Three serum samples were also seroreactive for antibodies to E. canis, and one was also reactive to the human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) agent. The titer to the HGE agent in this patient was higher than the serum titer to E. chaffeensis, and the Western blot analysis also indicated that the HGE agent was the primary cause of infection. We present the first serologic evidence that the agents of human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME) and HGE are present in Israel. Therefore, human ehrlichiosis should be included in the differential diagnoses for persons in Israel who have been exposed to ticks and have influenzalike symptoms.

        Cite This Article
    EID Keysary A, Amram L, Keren G, Sthoeger Z, Potasman I, Jacob A, et al. Serologic Evidence of Human Monocytic and Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis in Israel. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999;5(6):775-778. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0506.990605
    AMA Keysary A, Amram L, Keren G, et al. Serologic Evidence of Human Monocytic and Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis in Israel. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1999;5(6):775-778. doi:10.3201/eid0506.990605.
    APA Keysary, A., Amram, L., Keren, G., Sthoeger, Z., Potasman, I., Jacob, A....Waner, T. (1999). Serologic Evidence of Human Monocytic and Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis in Israel. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 5(6), 775-778. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0506.990605.
  • Supplementing Tuberculosis Surveillance with Automated Data from Health Maintenance Organizations PDF Version [PDF - 83 KB - 9 pages]
    D. S. Yokoe et al.
        View Abstract

    Data collected by health maintenance organizations (HMOs), which provide care for an increasing number of persons with tuberculosis (TB), may be used to complement traditional TB surveillance. We evaluated the ability of HMO-based surveillance to contribute to overall TB reporting through the use of routinely collected automated data for approximately 350,000 HMO members. During approximately 1.5 million person-years, 45 incident cases were identified in either HMO or public health department records. Eight (18%) confirmed cases had not been identified by the public health department. The most useful screening criterion (sensitivity of 89% and predictive value positive of 30%) was dispensing of two or more TB drugs. Pharmacy dispensing information routinely collected by many HMOs appears to be a useful adjunct to traditional TB surveillance, particularly for identifying cases without positive microbiologic results that may be missed by traditional public health surveillance methods.

        Cite This Article
    EID Yokoe DS, Subramanyan GS, Nardell E, Sharnprapai S, McCray E, Platt R, et al. Supplementing Tuberculosis Surveillance with Automated Data from Health Maintenance Organizations. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999;5(6):779-787. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0506.990606
    AMA Yokoe DS, Subramanyan GS, Nardell E, et al. Supplementing Tuberculosis Surveillance with Automated Data from Health Maintenance Organizations. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1999;5(6):779-787. doi:10.3201/eid0506.990606.
    APA Yokoe, D. S., Subramanyan, G. S., Nardell, E., Sharnprapai, S., McCray, E., & Platt, R. (1999). Supplementing Tuberculosis Surveillance with Automated Data from Health Maintenance Organizations. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 5(6), 779-787. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0506.990606.
  • Using Automated Pharmacy Records to Assess the Management of Tuberculosis PDF Version [PDF - 95 KB - 4 pages]
    G. S. Subramanyan et al.
        View Abstract

    We used automated pharmacy dispensing data to characterize tuberculosis (TB) management for 45 health maintenance organization (HMO) members. Pharmacy records distinguished patients treated in HMOs from those treated elsewhere. For cases treated in HMOs, they provided useful information about appropriateness of prescribed regimens and adherence to therapy.

        Cite This Article
    EID Subramanyan GS, Yokoe DS, Sharnprapai S, Nardell E, McCray E, Platt R, et al. Using Automated Pharmacy Records to Assess the Management of Tuberculosis. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999;5(6):788-791. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0506.990607
    AMA Subramanyan GS, Yokoe DS, Sharnprapai S, et al. Using Automated Pharmacy Records to Assess the Management of Tuberculosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1999;5(6):788-791. doi:10.3201/eid0506.990607.
    APA Subramanyan, G. S., Yokoe, D. S., Sharnprapai, S., Nardell, E., McCray, E., & Platt, R. (1999). Using Automated Pharmacy Records to Assess the Management of Tuberculosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 5(6), 788-791. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0506.990607.
  • Hantavirus Reservoir Hosts Associated with Peridomestic Habitats in Argentina PDF Version [PDF - 198 KB - 6 pages]
    G. Calderón et al.
        View Abstract

    Five species of sigmodontine rodents have been identified in Argentina as the putative reservoirs of six circulating hantavirus genotypes. Two species of Oligoryzomys are associated with the genotypes causing hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, Oligoryzomys flavescens for Lechiguanas and O. longicaudatus for Andes and Oran genotypes. Reports of human cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome prompted rodent trapping (2,299 rodents of 32 species during 27,780 trap nights) at potential exposure sites in three disease-endemic areas. Antibody reactive to Sin Nombre virus was found in six species, including the known hantavirus reservoir species. Risk for peridomestic exposure to host species that carry recognized human pathogens was high in all three major disease-endemic areas.

        Cite This Article
    EID Calderón G, Pini N, Bolpe J, Levis S, Mills J, Segura E, et al. Hantavirus Reservoir Hosts Associated with Peridomestic Habitats in Argentina. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999;5(6):792-797. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0506.990608
    AMA Calderón G, Pini N, Bolpe J, et al. Hantavirus Reservoir Hosts Associated with Peridomestic Habitats in Argentina. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1999;5(6):792-797. doi:10.3201/eid0506.990608.
    APA Calderón, G., Pini, N., Bolpe, J., Levis, S., Mills, J., Segura, E....Enria, D. (1999). Hantavirus Reservoir Hosts Associated with Peridomestic Habitats in Argentina. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 5(6), 792-797. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0506.990608.

Dispatches

  • Large, Persistent Epidemic of Adenovirus Type 4-Associated Acute Respiratory Disease in U.S. Army Trainees PDF Version [PDF - 229 KB - 4 pages]
    K. M. McNeill et al.
        View Abstract

    In May 1997, a large, persistent epidemic of adenovirus type 4-associated acute respiratory disease began at Fort Jackson, South Carolina, the largest army basic training center. The epidemic lasted until December and declined when vaccine administration resumed. More than 1,000 male and female trainees were hospitalized; 66.1% of those hospitalized had an adenovirus type 4 isolate.

        Cite This Article
    EID McNeill KM, Hendrix RM, Lindner JL, Benton FR, Monteith SC, Tuchscherer MA, et al. Large, Persistent Epidemic of Adenovirus Type 4-Associated Acute Respiratory Disease in U.S. Army Trainees. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999;5(6):798-801. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0506.990609
    AMA McNeill KM, Hendrix RM, Lindner JL, et al. Large, Persistent Epidemic of Adenovirus Type 4-Associated Acute Respiratory Disease in U.S. Army Trainees. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1999;5(6):798-801. doi:10.3201/eid0506.990609.
    APA McNeill, K. M., Hendrix, R. M., Lindner, J. L., Benton, F. R., Monteith, S. C., Tuchscherer, M. A....Gaydos, J. C. (1999). Large, Persistent Epidemic of Adenovirus Type 4-Associated Acute Respiratory Disease in U.S. Army Trainees. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 5(6), 798-801. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0506.990609.
  • Changes in Antimicrobial Resistance among Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Isolates from Humans and Cattle in the Northwestern United States, 1982–1997
    M. A. Davis et al.
        View Abstract

    We compared antimicrobial resistance patterns of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (ST) of isolates from humans (n = 715) and cattle (n = 378) in the Pacific Northwest from 1982 through 1997. The major changes in antimicrobial resistance can be attributed to the widespread clonal dissemination of multidrug-resistant definitive phage type 104 ST.

        Cite This Article
    EID Davis MA, Hancock DD, Besser TE, Rice DH, Gay JM, Gay C, et al. Changes in Antimicrobial Resistance among Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Isolates from Humans and Cattle in the Northwestern United States, 1982–1997. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999;5(6):802-806. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0506.990610
    AMA Davis MA, Hancock DD, Besser TE, et al. Changes in Antimicrobial Resistance among Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Isolates from Humans and Cattle in the Northwestern United States, 1982–1997. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1999;5(6):802-806. doi:10.3201/eid0506.990610.
    APA Davis, M. A., Hancock, D. D., Besser, T. E., Rice, D. H., Gay, J. M., Gay, C....DiGiacomo, R. (1999). Changes in Antimicrobial Resistance among Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Isolates from Humans and Cattle in the Northwestern United States, 1982–1997. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 5(6), 802-806. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0506.990610.
  • Toxic Shock Syndrome in the United States: Surveillance Update, 1979–1996 PDF Version [PDF - 76 KB - 4 pages]
    R. A. Hajjeh et al.
        View Abstract

    Menstrual toxic shock syndrome (TSS) emerged as a public health threat to women of reproductive age in 1979–80. We reviewed surveillance data for the period 1979 to 1996, when 5,296 cases were reported, and discuss changes in the epidemiologic features of TSS.

        Cite This Article
    EID Hajjeh RA, Reingold AL, Weil A, Shutt K, Schuchat A, Perkins BA, et al. Toxic Shock Syndrome in the United States: Surveillance Update, 1979–1996. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999;5(6):807-810. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0506.990611
    AMA Hajjeh RA, Reingold AL, Weil A, et al. Toxic Shock Syndrome in the United States: Surveillance Update, 1979–1996. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1999;5(6):807-810. doi:10.3201/eid0506.990611.
    APA Hajjeh, R. A., Reingold, A. L., Weil, A., Shutt, K., Schuchat, A., & Perkins, B. A. (1999). Toxic Shock Syndrome in the United States: Surveillance Update, 1979–1996. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 5(6), 807-810. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0506.990611.
  • New Rickettsiae in Ticks Collected in Territories of the Former Soviet Union PDF Version [PDF - 127 KB - 4 pages]
    E. Rydkina et al.
        View Abstract

    Dermacentor nuttallii from Siberia, Rhipicephalus sanguineus from Crimea, and Rh. pumilio from the Astrakhan region were infected with Rickettsia sibirica (12%), R. conorii (8%), and the Astrakhan fever agent (3%), respectively. Three new Rickettsiae of the R. massiliae genogroup were identified in ticks by 16S rDNA, gltA, and ompA sequencing.

        Cite This Article
    EID Rydkina E, Roux V, Fetisova N, Rudakov N, Gafarova M, Tarasevich I, et al. New Rickettsiae in Ticks Collected in Territories of the Former Soviet Union. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999;5(6):811-814. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0506.990612
    AMA Rydkina E, Roux V, Fetisova N, et al. New Rickettsiae in Ticks Collected in Territories of the Former Soviet Union. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1999;5(6):811-814. doi:10.3201/eid0506.990612.
    APA Rydkina, E., Roux, V., Fetisova, N., Rudakov, N., Gafarova, M., Tarasevich, I....Raoult, D. (1999). New Rickettsiae in Ticks Collected in Territories of the Former Soviet Union. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 5(6), 811-814. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0506.990612.
  • Computer-Generated Dot Maps as an Epidemiologic Tool: Investigating an Outbreak of Toxoplasmosis PDF Version [PDF - 119 KB - 5 pages]
    S. B. Eng et al.
        View Abstract

    We used computer-generated dot maps to examine the spatial distribution of 94 Toxoplasma gondii infections associated with an outbreak in British Columbia, Canada. The incidence among patients served by one water distribution system was 3.52 times that of patients served by other sources. Acute T. gondii infection among 3,812 pregnant women was associated with the incriminated distribution system.

        Cite This Article
    EID Eng SB, Werker DH, King AS, Marion SA, Bell A, Issac-Renton JL, et al. Computer-Generated Dot Maps as an Epidemiologic Tool: Investigating an Outbreak of Toxoplasmosis. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999;5(6):815-819. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0506.990613
    AMA Eng SB, Werker DH, King AS, et al. Computer-Generated Dot Maps as an Epidemiologic Tool: Investigating an Outbreak of Toxoplasmosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1999;5(6):815-819. doi:10.3201/eid0506.990613.
    APA Eng, S. B., Werker, D. H., King, A. S., Marion, S. A., Bell, A., Issac-Renton, J. L....Bowie, W. R. (1999). Computer-Generated Dot Maps as an Epidemiologic Tool: Investigating an Outbreak of Toxoplasmosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 5(6), 815-819. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0506.990613.
  • HIV Infection as a Risk Factor for Shigellosis PDF Version [PDF - 66 KB - 4 pages]
    J. T. Baer et al.
        View Abstract

    We investigated cases of shigellosis in San Francisco and Alameda Counties identified during 1996 by active laboratory surveillance to assess the role of HIV infection as a risk factor for shigellosis. Dramatically elevated rates of shigellosis in HIV-infected persons implicate HIV infection as an important risk factor for shigellosis in San Francisco.

        Cite This Article
    EID Baer JT, Vugia DJ, Reingold AL, Aragon T, Angulo FJ, Bradford WZ, et al. HIV Infection as a Risk Factor for Shigellosis. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999;5(6):820-823. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0506.990614
    AMA Baer JT, Vugia DJ, Reingold AL, et al. HIV Infection as a Risk Factor for Shigellosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1999;5(6):820-823. doi:10.3201/eid0506.990614.
    APA Baer, J. T., Vugia, D. J., Reingold, A. L., Aragon, T., Angulo, F. J., & Bradford, W. Z. (1999). HIV Infection as a Risk Factor for Shigellosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 5(6), 820-823. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0506.990614.
  • Dengue Seroconversion among Israeli Travelers to Tropical Countries PDF Version [PDF - 65 KB - 4 pages]
    I. Potasman et al.
        View Abstract

    We tested for dengue seroconversion among 104 Israeli young adults who traveled to tropical countries for at least 3 months. Seven (6.7%) seroconverted during travel; four (3.8%) had immunoglobulin (Ig) M antibodies; one was symptomatic with borderline IgM and a rise in IgG; two others (1.9%) had a rise in IgG titers, without detectable IgM. All four IgM-positive patients had traveled to Southeast Asia.

        Cite This Article
    EID Potasman I, Srugo I, Meltzer E. Dengue Seroconversion among Israeli Travelers to Tropical Countries. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999;5(6):824-827. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0506.990615
    AMA Potasman I, Srugo I, Meltzer E. Dengue Seroconversion among Israeli Travelers to Tropical Countries. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1999;5(6):824-827. doi:10.3201/eid0506.990615.
    APA Potasman, I., Srugo, I., & Meltzer, E. (1999). Dengue Seroconversion among Israeli Travelers to Tropical Countries. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 5(6), 824-827. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0506.990615.
  • Effectiveness of Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine for Preschool-Age Children with Chronic Disease PDF Version [PDF - 95 KB - 4 pages]
    A. E. Fiore et al.
        View Abstract

    To estimate the effectiveness of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, we serotyped isolates submitted to the Pneumococcal Sentinel Surveillance System from 1984 to 1996 from 48 vaccinated and 125 unvaccinated children 2 to 5 years of age. Effectiveness against invasive disease caused by serotypes included in the vaccine was 63%. Effectiveness against serotypes in the polysaccharide vaccine but not in a proposed seven-valent protein conjugate vaccine was 94%.

        Cite This Article
    EID Fiore AE, Levine OS, Elliott JA, Facklam RR, Butler JC. Effectiveness of Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine for Preschool-Age Children with Chronic Disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999;5(6):828-831. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0506.990616
    AMA Fiore AE, Levine OS, Elliott JA, et al. Effectiveness of Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine for Preschool-Age Children with Chronic Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1999;5(6):828-831. doi:10.3201/eid0506.990616.
    APA Fiore, A. E., Levine, O. S., Elliott, J. A., Facklam, R. R., & Butler, J. C. (1999). Effectiveness of Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine for Preschool-Age Children with Chronic Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 5(6), 828-831. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0506.990616.

Commentaries

  • Stimulating the Development of Orphan (and Other) Vaccines PDF Version [PDF - 46 KB - 1 page]
    B. Schwartz and N. R. Rabinovich
            Cite This Article
    EID Schwartz B, Rabinovich NR. Stimulating the Development of Orphan (and Other) Vaccines. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999;5(6):832. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0506.990617
    AMA Schwartz B, Rabinovich NR. Stimulating the Development of Orphan (and Other) Vaccines. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1999;5(6):832. doi:10.3201/eid0506.990617.
    APA Schwartz, B., & Rabinovich, N. R. (1999). Stimulating the Development of Orphan (and Other) Vaccines. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 5(6), 832. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0506.990617.

Letters

  • Swine as a Potential Reservoir of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Japan PDF Version [PDF - 59 KB - 2 pages]
    M. Nakazawa et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Nakazawa M, Akiba M, Sameshima T. Swine as a Potential Reservoir of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Japan. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999;5(6):833-834. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0506.990618
    AMA Nakazawa M, Akiba M, Sameshima T. Swine as a Potential Reservoir of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1999;5(6):833-834. doi:10.3201/eid0506.990618.
    APA Nakazawa, M., Akiba, M., & Sameshima, T. (1999). Swine as a Potential Reservoir of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 5(6), 833-834. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0506.990618.
  • Hospitalizations for Rotavirus Gastroenteritis in Gipuzkoa (Basque Country), Spain PDF Version [PDF - 60 KB - 2 pages]
    E. Pérez-Trallero et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Pérez-Trallero E, Piñeiro L, Iturzaeta A, Vicente D. Hospitalizations for Rotavirus Gastroenteritis in Gipuzkoa (Basque Country), Spain. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999;5(6):834-835. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0506.990619
    AMA Pérez-Trallero E, Piñeiro L, Iturzaeta A, et al. Hospitalizations for Rotavirus Gastroenteritis in Gipuzkoa (Basque Country), Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1999;5(6):834-835. doi:10.3201/eid0506.990619.
    APA Pérez-Trallero, E., Piñeiro, L., Iturzaeta, A., & Vicente, D. (1999). Hospitalizations for Rotavirus Gastroenteritis in Gipuzkoa (Basque Country), Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 5(6), 834-835. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0506.990619.
  • Israeli Spotted Fever Rickettsia (Rickettsia conorii Complex) Associated with Human Disease in Portugal PDF Version [PDF - 60 KB - 2 pages]
    F. Bacellar et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Bacellar F, Beati L, França A, Poças J, Regnery R, Filipe A, et al. Israeli Spotted Fever Rickettsia (Rickettsia conorii Complex) Associated with Human Disease in Portugal. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999;5(6):835-836. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0506.990620
    AMA Bacellar F, Beati L, França A, et al. Israeli Spotted Fever Rickettsia (Rickettsia conorii Complex) Associated with Human Disease in Portugal. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1999;5(6):835-836. doi:10.3201/eid0506.990620.
    APA Bacellar, F., Beati, L., França, A., Poças, J., Regnery, R., & Filipe, A. (1999). Israeli Spotted Fever Rickettsia (Rickettsia conorii Complex) Associated with Human Disease in Portugal. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 5(6), 835-836. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0506.990620.
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    EID Hänscheid T, Pinto BG, Pereira I, Cristino JM, Valadas E. Avoiding Misdiagnosis of Malaria: A Novel Automated Method Allows Specific Diagnosis, even in the Absence of Clinical Suspicion. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999;5(6):836-838. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0506.990621
    AMA Hänscheid T, Pinto BG, Pereira I, et al. Avoiding Misdiagnosis of Malaria: A Novel Automated Method Allows Specific Diagnosis, even in the Absence of Clinical Suspicion. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1999;5(6):836-838. doi:10.3201/eid0506.990621.
    APA Hänscheid, T., Pinto, B. G., Pereira, I., Cristino, J. M., & Valadas, E. (1999). Avoiding Misdiagnosis of Malaria: A Novel Automated Method Allows Specific Diagnosis, even in the Absence of Clinical Suspicion. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 5(6), 836-838. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0506.990621.
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    EID Razeq JH, Thomas GM, Alexander D. The First Reported Case of Aerococcus Bacteremia in a Patient with HIV Infection. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999;5(6):838-839. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0506.990622
    AMA Razeq JH, Thomas GM, Alexander D. The First Reported Case of Aerococcus Bacteremia in a Patient with HIV Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1999;5(6):838-839. doi:10.3201/eid0506.990622.
    APA Razeq, J. H., Thomas, G. M., & Alexander, D. (1999). The First Reported Case of Aerococcus Bacteremia in a Patient with HIV Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 5(6), 838-839. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0506.990622.
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    EID Labarca JA, McDonald LC, Pinto ME, Palavecino E, González P, Cona E, et al. Proficiency in Detecting Vancomycin Resistance in Enterococci among Clinical Laboratories in Santiago, Chile. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999;5(6):839-840. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0506.990623
    AMA Labarca JA, McDonald LC, Pinto ME, et al. Proficiency in Detecting Vancomycin Resistance in Enterococci among Clinical Laboratories in Santiago, Chile. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1999;5(6):839-840. doi:10.3201/eid0506.990623.
    APA Labarca, J. A., McDonald, L. C., Pinto, M. E., Palavecino, E., González, P., Cona, E....Jarvis, W. R. (1999). Proficiency in Detecting Vancomycin Resistance in Enterococci among Clinical Laboratories in Santiago, Chile. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 5(6), 839-840. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0506.990623.
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    EID Hedberg C. Food-Related Illness and Death in the United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999;5(6):840-841. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0506.990624
    AMA Hedberg C. Food-Related Illness and Death in the United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1999;5(6):840-841. doi:10.3201/eid0506.990624.
    APA Hedberg, C. (1999). Food-Related Illness and Death in the United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 5(6), 840-841. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0506.990624.
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    EID Mead PS, Slutsker L, Griffin PM, Tauxe RV. Food-Related Illness and Death in the United States Reply to Dr. Hedberg. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999;5(6):841-842. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0506.990625
    AMA Mead PS, Slutsker L, Griffin PM, et al. Food-Related Illness and Death in the United States Reply to Dr. Hedberg. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1999;5(6):841-842. doi:10.3201/eid0506.990625.
    APA Mead, P. S., Slutsker, L., Griffin, P. M., & Tauxe, R. V. (1999). Food-Related Illness and Death in the United States Reply to Dr. Hedberg. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 5(6), 841-842. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0506.990625.
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    EID Marshall J, Catton M. Specimen Collection for Electron Microscopy. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999;5(6):842. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0506.990626
    AMA Marshall J, Catton M. Specimen Collection for Electron Microscopy. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1999;5(6):842. doi:10.3201/eid0506.990626.
    APA Marshall, J., & Catton, M. (1999). Specimen Collection for Electron Microscopy. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 5(6), 842. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0506.990626.

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Corrections

  • Vol. 5 No. 3 PDF Version [PDF - 48 KB - 1 page]
            Cite This Article
    EID Vol. 5 No. 3. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999;5(6):844. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0506.990627
    AMA Vol. 5 No. 3. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1999;5(6):844. doi:10.3201/eid0506.990627.
    APA (1999). Vol. 5 No. 3. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 5(6), 844. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0506.990627.
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