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Disclaimer: Ahead of print articles are not considered as final versions. Any changes will be reflected in the online version in the month the article is officially released.

Issues Available

Volume 23, Number 9—September 2017

Perspective

  • Bioinformatic Analyses of Whole-Genome Sequence Data in a Public Health Laboratory
    K. F. Oakeson et al.
           

Research

  • Real-Time Whole-Genome Sequencing for Surveillance of Listeria monocytogenes, France
    A. Moura et al.
        View Abstract

    During 2015–2016, we evaluated the performance of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) as a routine typing tool. Its added value for microbiological and epidemiologic surveillance of listeriosis was compared with that for pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), the current standard method. A total of 2,743 Listeria monocytogenes isolates collected as part of routine surveillance were characterized in parallel by PFGE and core genome multilocus sequence typing (cgMLST) extracted from WGS. We investigated PFGE and cgMLST clusters containing human isolates. Discrimination of isolates was significantly higher by cgMLST than by PFGE (p<0.001). cgMLST discriminated unrelated isolates that shared identical PFGE profiles and phylogenetically closely related isolates with distinct PFGE profiles. This procedure also refined epidemiologic investigations to include only phylogenetically closely related isolates, improved source identification, and facilitated epidemiologic investigations, enabling identification of more outbreaks at earlier stages. WGS-based typing should replace PFGE as the primary typing method for L. monocytogenes.

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  • Prevalence of Yersinia enterocolitica Bioserotype 3/O:3 among Children with Diarrhea, China, 2010–2015
    R. Duan et al.
        View Abstract

    Yersinia enterocolitica is thought to not significantly contribute to diarrheal disease in China, but evidence substantiating this claim is limited. We determined the prevalence of Y. enterocolitica infection and strain types present among children <5 years of age with diarrhea in China. The overall prevalence of pathogenic isolates was 0.59%. Prevalence of pathogenic bioserotype 3/O:3 varied geographically. In this population, the presence of fecal leukocytes was a characteristic of Y. enterocolitica infection and should be used as an indication for microbiological diagnostic testing, rather than for the diagnosis of bacillary dysentery. In contrast with Y. enterocolitica isolates from adults, which were primarily biotype 1A, isolates from children were primarily bioserotype 3/O:3. Most pathogenic isolates from children shared pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns with isolates from pigs and dogs, suggesting a possible link between isolates from animals and infections in children. Our findings underscore the need for improved diagnostics for this underestimated pathogen.

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  • Convergence of Humans, Bats, Trees, and Culture in Nipah Virus Transmission, Bangladesh
    E. S. Gurley et al.
        View Abstract

    Preventing emergence of new zoonotic viruses depends on understanding determinants for human risk. Nipah virus (NiV) is a lethal zoonotic pathogen that has spilled over from bats into human populations, with limited person-to-person transmission. We examined ecologic and human behavioral drivers of geographic variation for risk of NiV infection in Bangladesh. We visited 60 villages during 2011–2013 where cases of infection with NiV were identified and 147 control villages. We compared case villages with control villages for most likely drivers for risk of infection, including number of bats, persons, and date palm sap trees, and human date palm sap consumption behavior. Case villages were similar to control villages in many ways, including number of bats, persons, and date palm sap trees, but had a higher proportion of households in which someone drank sap. Reducing human consumption of sap could reduce virus transmission and risk for emergence of a more highly transmissible NiV strain.

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  • Estimated Annual Numbers of Foodborne Pathogen–Associated Illnesses, Hospitalizations, and Deaths, France, 2008–2013
    D. Van Cauteren et al.
           
  • Epidemiology of Salmonella enterica Serotype Dublin Infections among Humans, United States, 1968–2013
    R. Harvey et al.
    View Summary

    Infection incidence and antimicrobial drug resistance are increasing.

           
  • Phylogeographic Analysis of Rabies Virus Genomes and Processes Underlying Incursions across US–Canada Border
    H. Trewby et al.
           
  • The Role of Food Insecurity in an Outbreak of Anthrax among Humans and Hippopotamuses Living in a Game Reserve Area, Rural Zambia
           
  • Patterns of Human Plague in Uganda, 2008–2016
    J. D. Forrester et al.
           
  • Val-PrP Variant Prevents Zoonotic BSE Transmission but Allows Human-to-Human vCJD Transmission
    N. Fernández-Borges et al.
    View Summary

    The severely restricted transmission of BSE to human Val129 polymorphic variant can be overcome by adaptation of the agent to the human Met129 PrP variant, resulting in a prion with different strain features when compared to vCJD.

           

Dispatches

  • Group A Rotavirus Associated with Encephalitis in Red Fox
           
  • Cost of Nosocomial Outbreak Caused by NDM-1–Containing Klebsiella pneumoniae in the Netherlands, October 2015–January 2016
    M. Mollers et al.
        View Abstract

    During October–December 2015, 29 patients in a hospital in the Netherlands acquired nosocomial infection with a multidrug-resistant, New Delhi-metallo-β-lactamase–positive Klebsiella pneumoniae strain. Extensive infection control measures were needed to stop this outbreak. The estimated economic impact of the outbreak was $804,263; highest costs were associated with hospital bed closures.

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  • Imported Infections with Mansonella perstans Nematodes, Italy
    F. Gobbi et al.
           
  • Microcephaly Caused by Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus
    M. Delaine et al.
           
  • Epidemiology of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Gyrase A Genotype, Los Angeles, California, USA
    A. A. Bhatti et al.
           
  • Emergence of Plasmid-Mediated Fosfomycin Resistance Genes among Escherichia coli Isolates, France
    Y. Benzerara et al.
           
  • Evaluation of 5 Commercially Available Zika Virus Immunoassays
    D. Safronetz et al.
        View Abstract

    Because of global spread of Zika virus, accurate and high-throughput diagnostic immunoassays are needed. We compared the sensitivity and specificity of 5 commercially available Zika virus serologic assays to the recommended protocol of Zika virus IgM-capture ELISA and plaque-reduction neutralization tests. Most commercial immunoassays showed low sensitivity, which can be increased.

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  • Genetic Diversity of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N8/H5N5) Viruses in Italy, 2016–17
    A. Fusaro et al.
        View Abstract

    In winter 2016–17, highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) and A(H5N5) viruses of clade 2.3.4.4 were identified in wild and domestic birds in Italy. We report the occurrence of multiple introductions and describe the identification in Europe of 2 novel genotypes, generated through multiple reassortment events.

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  • Myocarditis Caused by Human Parechovirus in Adult
    K. Kong et al.
        View Abstract

    The infectious etiology of myocarditis often remains unidentified. We report a case of myocarditis associated with human parechovirus (HPeV) infection in an adult. HPeV is an emerging pathogen that can cause serious illness, including myocarditis, in adults. Testing for HPeV should be considered in differential diagnosis of myocarditis.

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  • Use of Blood Donor Screening to Monitor Prevalence of HIV and Hepatitis B and C Viruses, South Africa
    M. Vermeulen et al.
        View Abstract

    Among 397,640 first-time blood donors screened in South Africa during 2012–2015, HIV prevalence was 1.13%, hepatitis B virus prevalence 0.66%, and hepatitis C virus prevalence 0.03%. Findings of note were a high HIV prevalence in Mpumalanga Province and the near absence of hepatitis C virus nationwide.

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  • Serologic Evidence of Circulation of Influenza Virus C, D, or Both among Ruminants and Camelids, Africa, 1991–2015
    E. Salem et al.
           
  • Possible Role of Fish as Transport Hosts for Dracunculus spp. Larvae
    C. A. Cleveland et al.
        View Abstract

    To inform Dracunculus medinensis (Guinea worm) eradication efforts, we evaluated the role of fish as transport hosts for Dracunculus worms. Ferrets fed fish that had ingested infected copepods became infected, highlighting the importance of recommendations to cook fish, bury entrails, and prevent dogs from consuming raw fish and entrails.

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  • Similarities of Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Strain in Mother and Son in Spain to UK Reference Case
    A. B. Diack et al.
           
  • Influenza A(H3N2) Virus in Swine Responsible for Zoonotic Transmission at Agricultural Fairs, Michigan and Ohio, USA, 2016
    A. S. Bowman et al.
           
  • Determination of Ferret Enteric Coronavirus Genome in Laboratory Ferrets
    T. Li et al.
        View Abstract

    Ferret enteric coronavirus (FRECV) RNA was detected in laboratory ferrets. Analysis of the complete genome sequence of 2 strains, FRCoV4370 and FRCoV063, revealed that FRECV shared 49.9%–68.9% nucleotide sequence identity with known coronaviruses. These results suggest that FRECV might be classified as a new species in the genus Alphacoronavirus.

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  • Norovirus in Bottled Water Associated with Gastroenteritis Outbreak, Spain, 2016
    A. Blanco et al.
        View Abstract

    In April 2016, an outbreak of gastrointestinal illness (4,136 cases) occurred in Catalonia, Spain. We detected high levels of norovirus genotypes I and II in office water coolers associated with the outbreak. Infectious viral titer estimates were 33–49 genome copies/L for genotype I and 327–660 genome copies/L for genotype II.

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Research Letters

  • Identification of Clade E Avipoxvirus, Mozambique, Africa, 2016
    L. P. Mapaco et al.
           
  • Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae and Nonfermentative Bacteria, the Philippines, 2013–2016
    J. Velasco et al.
        View Abstract

    During 2013–2016, we isolated blaNDM- and blaVIM-harboring Enterobacteriaceae and nonfermentative bacteria from patients in the Philippines. Of 130 carbapenem-resistant isolates tested, 45 were Carba NP–positive; 43 harbored blaNDM, and 2 harbored blaVIM. Multidrug-resistant microbial pathogen surveillance and antimicrobial drug stewardship are needed to prevent further spread of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase variants.

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  • A New Bat-HKU2–like Coronavirus in Swine, China, 2017
    L. Gong et al.
        View Abstract

    We identified from suckling piglets with diarrhea in China a new bat-HKU2–like porcine coronavirus (porcine enteric alphacoronavirus). The GDS04 strain of this coronavirus shares high aa identities (>90%) with the reported bat-HKU2 strains in Coronaviridae-wide conserved domains, suggesting that the GDS04 strain belongs to the same species as HKU2.

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  • Chronic Wasting Disease Prion Strain Emergence and Host Range Expansion
    A. Herbst et al.
        View Abstract

    Human and mouse prion proteins share a structural motif that regulates resistance to common chronic wasting disease (CWD) prion strains. Successful transmission of an emergent strain of CWD prion, H95+, into mice resulted in infection. Thus, emergent CWD prion strains may have higher zoonotic potential than common strains.

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  • Indication of Cross-Species Transmission of Astrovirus Associated with Encephalitis in Sheep and Cattle
    C. L. Boujon et al.
           
  • Antibiotic-Resistant Shiga Toxin–Producing Escherichia coli Infections in Michigan
    S. Mukherjee et al.
    View Summary

    Antibiotic-resistant STEC infections have emerged in Michigan and are associated with hospitalization.

           
  • Rabies Virus Transmission in Solid Organ Transplantation, China, 2015–2016
    S. Chen et al.
        View Abstract

    We report rabies virus transmission among solid organ transplantation recipients in Changsha, China, in 2016. Two recipients were confirmed to have rabies and died. Our findings suggest that more attention should be paid to the possibility of rabies virus transmission through organ transplantation for clinical and public health reasons.

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Volume 23, Number 10—October 2017

Research

  • Enteric Infections Circulating during Hajj Seasons, 2011–2013
    M. El Ghany et al.
           
  • Economic Assessment of Waterborne Outbreak of Cryptosporidiosis
    A. Chyzheuskaya et al.
           
  • Disease Burden of Clostridium difficile Infections in Adults, Hong Kong, China, 2006–2014
    J. Ho et al.
           

Dispatches

  • Off-Label Use of Bedaquiline in Children and Adolescents with Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis
           
  • Bedaquiline and Delamanid Combination Treatment for Pulmonary Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis, Europe and India
    A. Maryandyshev et al.
           
  • Mild Illness and Absence of Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome during Shiga Toxin−Producing Escherichia coli O157 Outbreak Associated with Agricultural Show, Australia, 2013
    B. R. Vasant et al.
           
  • Enterovirus-D68–Associated Acute Flaccid Myelitis in Immunocompromised Woman, Italy
    E. Giombini et al.
           

Research Letters

  • Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Pregnant Woman on Bedaquiline and Linezolid
    M. Jaspard et al.
           
  • Dengue Virus Exported from Côte d’Ivoire to Japan, June 2017
    T. Suzuki et al.
           
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