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Disclaimer: Ahead of print articles are not considered as final versions. Any changes will be reflected in the online version in the month the article is officially released.

Volume 24, Number 10—October 2018


  • Molecular Evolution, Diversity, and Adaptation of Influenza A(H7N9) Viruses in China
    J. Lu et al.
  • Influenza Transmission Dynamics in Nicaragua Households
    A. Gordon et al.
  • Rapid Increase in Carriage Rates of Enterobacteriaceae Producing Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases in Healthy Preschool Children, Sweden
    J. Kaarme et al.
  • Evaluation of Nowcasting for Detection and Prediction of Local Influenza Epidemics, Sweden, 2009–2014
    A. Spreco et al.
  • Mapping Histoplasma capsulatum Exposure, United States
    A. W. Maiga et al.
  • Tuberculosis Treatment Monitoring by Video Directly Observed Therapy, 5 California Health Districts
    R. S. Garfein et al.
  • Evaluation of the Effectiveness of a Community-Based Intervention for the Control of Dengue Vector, Burkina Faso
    S. Ouédraogo et al.
  • Frequent Genetic Mismatch between Vaccine Strains and Circulating Seasonal Influenza Viruses, Hong Kong, China, 1996–2012
    M. Chan et al.
        View Abstract

    The World Health Organization selects influenza vaccine compositions biannually to cater for peaks in temperate regions. In tropical and subtropical regions, where influenza seasonality varies and epidemics can occur year-round, the choice of vaccine remains uncertain. Our 17-year molecular epidemiologic survey showed that most influenza A(H3N2) (9/11) and B (6/7) vaccine strains had circulated in East Asia >1 year before inclusion into vaccines. Northern Hemisphere vaccine strains and circulating strains in East Asia were closely matched in 7 (20.6%) of 34 seasons for H3N2 and 5 (14.7%) of 34 seasons for B. Southern Hemisphere vaccines also had a low probability of matching (H3N2, 14.7%; B, 11.1%). Strain drift among seasons was common (H3N2, 41.2%; B, 35.3%), and biannual vaccination strategy (Northern Hemisphere vaccines in November followed by Southern Hemisphere vaccines in May) did not improve matching. East Asia is an important contributor to influenza surveillance but often has mismatch between vaccine and contemporarily circulating strains.

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  • Candida auris in Healthcare Facilities, New York, USA, 2013–2017
    E. Adams et al.
  • Transmission Dynamics of Eurasian H5Nx Clade Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza, United States, 2014–2015
    D. Lee et al.


  • Identification of Influenza C Virus in Cattle with Respiratory Disease in the United States, 2016–2018
    H. Zhang et al.
  • Multilocus Sequence Typing of Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Japan, 2002–2016
    M. Ando et al.
  • Simple Estimates for Local Prevalence of Latent Tuberculosis Infection, United States, 2011–2015
    M. B. Haddad et al.
  • Cronobacter spp. in Common Breastmilk Substitutes, Bogotá, Colombia
    M. Morato-Rodríguez et al.
  • Whole, Inactivated, Low Pathogenic H7N9 Vaccine against Antigenically Distinct, Highly Pathogenic H7N9 Virus in a Ferret Model
    M. Hatta et al.
  • Two Community Clusters of Legionnaires’ Disease Directly Linked to a Biologic Wastewater Treatment Plant, the Netherlands
    A. D. Loenenbach et al.
  • Mycobacterium caprae Infection in Captive Borneo Elephant, Japan
    S. Yoshida et al.

Research Letters

  • Circulation of Influenza A(H5N8) Virus, Saudi Arabia
    H. Al-Ghadeer et al.
        View Abstract

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) viruses have been detected in several continents. However, limited viral sequence data is available from countries in the Middle East. We report full-genome analyses of highly pathogenic H5N8 viruses recently detected in different provinces in Saudi Arabia.

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  • Diagnosis of Haemophilus influenzae Pneumonia by Nanopore 16S Amplicon Sequencing of Sputum
    J. Moon et al.
        View Abstract

    We used deep sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene from sputum to identify Haemophilus influenza in a patient with community-acquired pneumonia. This method may be more effective than conventional diagnostic tests in pneumonia patients because of its speed and sensitivity.

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  • Staphylococcus argenteus Sequence Type 2250 Community-Acquired Bone and Joint Infection, France 2017
    J. Rigaill et al.
  • Severe Respiratory Illness Outbreak Associated with Human Coronavirus NL-63 in Long-Term Care Facility
    J. Hand et al.
  • Psychrobacter sanguinis Wound Infection Associated with Marine Environment Exposure, Washington, USA
    J. Bonwitt et al.
  • Clinical Isolation and Identification of Haematospirillum jordaniae
    G. Hovan and A. Hollinger
  • Introduction of Eurasian-origin Influenza A(H8N4) Virus into North America by Migratory Birds
    A. M. Ramey et al.
  • New Reassortant Clade Avian Influenza A(H5N6) Virus in Wild Birds, South Korea, 2017–18
    J. Kwon et al.

Online Report

  • Protective Measures for Humans against Avian Influenza A(H5N8) Outbreaks in 22 European Union/European Economic Area Countries and Israel, 2016–17
    C. Adlhoch et al.
        View Abstract

    We sought to better understand national approaches for managing potential human health risks during outbreaks of infection with avian influenza A(H5N8) virus during 2017–17. Twenty-three countries in the Union/European Economic Area and Israel participated in this study. Risk to the general public was assessed as low in 18 countries and medium in 1 country. Of 524 exposed persons identified, 274 were passively monitored and 250 were actively monitored. Of 29 persons tested, all were negative for H5N8 virus. Vaccination and antiviral drug recommendations varied across countries. A high level of personal protection was recommended although a low risk was assessed. No transmission of this virus to humans was identified.

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Conference Summary

  • VisiEAU 2018—A Vision for Water in Haiti, 2018
    J. M. Widmer et al.

Volume 24, Number 11—November 2018


  • Cryptococcus gattii Complex Infections in HIV-Infected Patients, Southeastern United States
    K. T. Bruner et al.


  • Detection of Tickborne Relapsing Fever Spirochete, Austin, Texas, USA
    J. D. Bissett et al.


  • Human Infections with Rickettsia japonica, China, 2015
    Q. Lu et al.
  • Fatal Case of Diphtheria and Risk for Reemergence, Singapore
    Y. Lai et al.

Research Letter

  • Japanese Spotted Fever Endemic in China
    J. Li et al.

Volume 24, Number 12—December 2018


  • Autochthonous Human Case of Seoul Virus Infection, the Netherlands
    C. Swanink et al.
        View Abstract

    Orthohantaviruses are a group of rodentborne viruses with a worldwide distribution. The orthohantavirus Seoul virus (SEOV) can cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in humans and is distributed worldwide, like its reservoir host, the rat. Cases of SEOV in wild and pet rats have been described in several countries, and human cases have been reported in the United Kingdom, France, Canada, and the United States. In the Netherlands, SEOV has previously been found in wild brown rats. We describe an autochthonous human case of SEOV infection in the Netherlands. This patient had nonspecific clinical symptoms of an orthohantavirus infection (gastrointestinal symptoms and distinct elevation of liver enzymes). Subsequent source investigation revealed 2 potential sources, the patient’s feeder rats and a feeder rat farm. At both sources, a high prevalence of SEOV was found in the rats. The virus closely resembled the Cherwell and Turckheim SEOV strains that were previously found in Europe.

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  • Substance Use and Adherence to HIV Preexposure Prophylaxis for Men who Have Sex with Men
    M. Hoenigl et al.
  • Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Mongolia, 2013–2014
    M. A. Voorhees et al.


  • Isolation of Burkholderia pseudomallei from a Pet Green Iguana, Belgium
    T. Hellebuyck et al.