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Disclaimer: Ahead of print articles are not considered as final versions. Any changes will be reflected in the online version in the month the article is officially released.

Issues Available

Volume 23, Number 3—March 2017

Synopses

  • Epidemiology of Invasive Haemophilus influenzae Disease, Europe, 2007–2014
       
  • Three Cases of Neurologic Syndrome Caused by Donor-Derived Microsporidiosis
    R. M. Smith et al.
    View Summary

    An infected donor transmitted Encephalitozoon cuniculi to 3 solid organ recipients, 1 of whom died.

       
  • Epidemiology of Human Infection with Mycobacterium bovis in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, 2002–2014
    J. A. Davidson et al.
    View Summary

    Despite slightly increased cases in these areas, human infection with this pathogen remains rare.

       

Research

  • Bartonella ancashensis Identified by Whole-Genome Analysis of Human Pathogens Causing Verruga Peruana, Rural Ancash Region, Peru
    K. E. Mullins et al.
       
  • Zika Virus RNA Replication and Persistence in Brain and Placental Tissue
    J. Bhatnagar et al.
        View Abstract

    Zika virus is causally linked with congenital microcephaly and may be associated with pregnancy loss. However, the mechanisms of Zika virus intrauterine transmission and replication and its tropism and persistence in tissues are poorly understood. We tested tissues from 52 case-patients: 8 infants with microcephaly who died and 44 women suspected of being infected with Zika virus during pregnancy. By reverse transcription PCR, tissues from 32 (62%) case-patients (brains from 8 infants with microcephaly and placental/fetal tissues from 24 women) were positive for Zika virus. In situ hybridization localized replicative Zika virus RNA in brains of 7 infants and in placentas of 9 women who had pregnancy losses during the first or second trimester. These findings demonstrate that Zika virus replicates and persists in fetal brains and placentas, providing direct evidence of its association with microcephaly. Tissue-based reverse transcription PCR extends the time frame of Zika virus detection in congenital and pregnancy-associated infections.

  • Comparison of Sputum Culture Conversion for Mycobacterium bovis and M. tuberculosis
    C. Scott et al.
       
  • Spatiotemporal Fluctuations and Triggers of Ebola Virus Spillover
    J. Schmidt et al.
        View Abstract

    Because the natural reservoir of Ebola virus remains unclear and disease outbreaks in humans have occurred only sporadically over a large region, forecasting when and where Ebola spillovers are most likely to occur constitutes a continuing and urgent public health challenge. We developed a statistical modeling approach that associates 37 human or great ape Ebola spillovers since 1982 with spatiotemporally dynamic covariates including vegetative cover, human population size, and absolute and relative rainfall over 3 decades across sub-Saharan Africa. Our model (area under the curve 0.80 on test data) shows that spillover intensity is highest during transitions between wet and dry seasons; overall, high seasonal intensity occurs over much of tropical Africa; and spillover intensity is greatest at high (>1,000/km2) and very low (<100/km2) human population densities compared with intermediate levels. These results suggest strong seasonality in Ebola spillover from wild reservoirs and indicate particular times and regions for targeted surveillance.

  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis Transmission among Elderly Persons, Yamagata Prefecture, Japan, 2009–2015
    J. Seto et al.
       
  • Use of Mass-Participation Outdoor Events to Assess Human Exposure to Tickborne Pathogens
    J. L. Hall et al.
       
  • Epidemiology of Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Lung Disease and Tuberculosis, Hawaii
    J. Adjemian et al.
       

Dispatches

  • Molecular, Spatial, and Field Epidemiology Suggesting TB Transmission in Community, Not Hospital, Gaborone, Botswana
    D. Surie et al.
        View Abstract

    During 2012–2015, 10 of 24 patients infected with matching genotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis received care at the same hospital in Gaborone, Botswana. Nosocomial transmission was initially suspected, but we discovered plausible sites of community transmission for 20 (95%) of 21 interviewed patients. Active case-finding at these sites could halt ongoing transmission.

  • Rhodococcus Infection in Solid Organ and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients
    P. Vergidis et al.
       
  • Zoonotic Transmission of the mcr-1 Colistin Resistance Gene from Nonintensive Poultry Farms, Vietnam
    N. Trung et al.
       
  • Genetically Diverse Filoviruses in Rousettus and Eonycteris spp. Bats, China
    X. Yang et al.
       
  • Likely Autochthonous Transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi to Humans, Southcentral Texas, USA
    S. M. Gunter et al.
       
  • Outbreaks Associated with Food Imported into the United States, 1996–2014
    L. Gould et al.
       
  • Pneumonic Plague Transmission, Moramanga, Madagascar, 2015
    B. Ramasindrazana et al.
       
  • Mycobacterium chimaera in Heater–Cooler Units in Denmark Related to Isolates from the United States and United Kingdom
    E. Svensson et al.
        View Abstract

    Mycobacterium chimaera was present at high rates (>80%) in heater–cooler units (HCUs) from all 5 thoracic surgery departments in Denmark. Isolates were clonal to HCU-associated isolates from the United States (including some from patients) and United Kingdom. However, M. chimaera from 2 brands of HCU were genetically distinct.

  • pncA Gene Mutations and Pyrazinamide Resistance in Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis, South Africa and Georgia
    S. Allana et al.
       
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection among Asian Elephants (Elephas maximus) in Captivity
    G. Simpson et al.
       
  • Variegated Squirrel Bornavirus 1 in Squirrels, Germany and the Netherlands
    K. Schlottau et al.
       
  • Increased Tuberculosis Cases among Prisoners, Brazil, 2009–2014
    P. M. Bourdillon et al.
       

Research Letter

  • Imported Case of Leptospira licerasiae Infection in Japanese Traveler Returning from Brazil
    M. Tsuboi et al.
       

Letters

  • Two Cases of Neisseria meningitidis Proctitis in HIV-Positive Men who Have Sex with Men
    J. Gutierrez-Fernandez et al.
       
  • Mycobacterium bovis in a Free-Ranging Black Rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) in Kruger National Park, South Africa 2016
    M. A. Miller et al.
       
  • Zika Virus Vector Competency of Mosquitoes, Gulf Coast, United States
    C. E. Hart et al.
        View Abstract

    Zika virus has recently spread throughout the Americas. Although Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are considered the primary vector, Culex quinquefasciatus and mosquitoes of other species may also be vectors. We tested Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. taeniorhynchus mosquitoes from the US Gulf Coast; both were refractory to infection and incapable of transmission.

  • Worldwide Endemicity of a Multidrug-Resistant Staphylococcus capitis Clone Involved in Neonatal Sepsis
    M. Butin et al.
       
  • Association of Diabetes and Tuberculosis Disease among US-Bound Adult Refugees, 2009–2014
    S. R. Benoit et al.
       
  • Successful Treatment of Human Plague with Oral Ciprofloxacin
    T. Apangu et al.
       
  • Molecular Verification of New World Mansonella perstans Parasitemias
    L. Tavares da Silva et al.
       
  • Potentially Zoonotic Bartonella Species in Bats from France and Spain
       

Volume 23, Number 4—April 2017

Synopsis

  • Neurologic Complications of Influenza B Virus Infection, Romania
    C. P. Popescu et al.
    View Summary

    Infection with this virus should be considered as an etiologic factor for encephalitis.

       

Research

  • Presence and Persistence of Zika Virus RNA in Semen, United Kingdom, 2016
    B. Atkinson et al.
        View Abstract

    Zika virus RNA has been detected in semen collected several months after onset of symptoms of infection. Given the potential for sexual transmission of Zika virus and for serious fetal abnormalities resulting from infection during pregnancy, information regarding the persistence of Zika virus in semen is critical for advancing our understanding of potential risks. We tested serial semen samples from symptomatic male patients in the United Kingdom who had a diagnosis of imported Zika virus infection. Among the initial semen samples from 23 patients, Zika virus RNA was detected at high levels in 13 (56.5%) and was not detected in 9 (39.1%); detection was indeterminate in 1 sample (4.4%). After symptomatic infection, a substantial proportion of men have detectable Zika virus RNA at high copy numbers in semen during early convalescence, suggesting high risk for sexual transmission. Viral RNA clearance times are not consistent and can be prolonged.

Dispatches

  • Severe Thrombocytopenia after Zika Virus Infection, Guadeloupe, 2016
    T. Boyer Chammard et al.
        View Abstract

    Severe thrombocytopenia during or after the course of Zika virus infection has been rarely reported. We report 7 cases of severe thrombocytopenia and hemorrhagic signs and symptoms in Guadeloupe after infection with this virus. Clinical course and laboratory findings strongly suggest a causal link between Zika virus infection and immune-mediated thrombocytopenia.

  • Outbreaks among Wild Birds and Domestic Poultry Caused by Reassorted Influenza A(H5N8) Clade 2.3.4.4 Viruses, Germany, 2016
    A. Pohlmann et al.
        View Abstract

    In November 2016, an influenza A(H5N8) outbreak caused deaths of wild birds and domestic poultry in Germany. Clade 2.3.4.4 virus was closely related to viruses at the Russia–Mongolia border in 2016 but had new polymerase acidic and nucleoprotein segments. These new strains may be more efficiently transmitted to and shed by birds.

  • Detection of Zika Virus in Desiccated Mosquitoes by Real-Time Reverse Transcription PCR and Plaque Assay
    K. L. Burkhalter and H. M. Savage
        View Abstract

    We assayed Zika virus–infected mosquitoes stored at room temperature for <30 days for live virus by using plaque assay and virus RNA by using real-time reverse transcription PCR. Viable virus was detected in samples stored <10 days, and virus RNA was detected in samples held for 30 days.

  • Increasing Incidence and Characteristics of Scarlet Fever, South Korea, 2008–2015
    D. Park et al.
       
  • Zika Virus Seroprevalence, French Polynesia, 2014–2015
    M. Aubry et al.
        View Abstract

    During 2013–2014, French Polynesia experienced an outbreak of Zika virus infection. Serosurveys conducted at the end of the outbreak and 18 months later showed lower than expected disease prevalence rates (49%) and asymptomatic:symptomatic case ratios (1:1) in the general population but significantly different prevalence rates (66%) and asymptomatic:symptomatic ratios (1:2) in schoolchildren.

  • Assessing Sensitivity and Specificity of Surveillance Case Definitions for Zika Virus Disease
    A. Chow et al.
       

Research Letters

  • Novel Reassortant Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N8 Virus in Zoos, India
    S. Nagarajan et al.
       
  • mcr-1 in Enterobacteriaceae from Companion Animals, Beijing, China, 2012–2016
    L. Lei et al.
       
  • Acute Tetraplegia Caused by Rat Bite Fever in Snake Keeper and Transmission of Streptobacillus moniliformis
    T. Eisenberg et al.
       
  • Management of Bartonella Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis without Cardiac Surgery
    A. Carroll et al.
       
  • Ebola Virus RNA in Semen from an HIV-Positive Survivor of Ebola
    E. Rogers et al.
       
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