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Ahead of Print / In Press

Disclaimer: Ahead of print articles are not considered as final versions. Any changes will be reflected in the online version in the month the article is officially released.

Issues Available

Volume 25, Number 6—June 2019


  • Using Big Data to Monitor the Introduction and Spread of Chikungunya, Europe, 2017
    J. Rocklöv et al.


  • Immunopathology of Fatal Human Variegated Squirrel Bornavirus 1 Encephalitis, Germany, 2011–2013
    D. Tappe et al.
  • Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Musculoskeletal Infection Cases from a Tertiary Referral Center, Colorado
    N. Goldstein et al.
  • Lassa Fever Outbreak, Nigeria, January–May 2018
    E. A. Ilori et al.


  • Enhancement of Risk for Lyme Disease by Landscape Connectivity, New York, New York, USA
    M. C. VanAcker et al.
  • Follow-Up of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Enzootic Focus, Spain, 2011–2015
    A. Negredo et al.
  • Mass Die-Off of Saiga Antelopes, Kazakhstan, 2015
    S. Fereidouni et al.
  • Sequential Emergence and Wide Spread of Neutralization Escape Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Mutants, South Korea, 2015
    Y. Kim et al.
        View Abstract

    The unexpectedly large outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome in South Korea in 2015 was initiated by an infected traveler and amplified by several “superspreading” events. Previously, we reported the emergence and spread of mutant Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus bearing spike mutations (I529T or D510G) with reduced affinity to human receptor CD26 during the outbreak. To assess the potential association of spike mutations with superspreading events, we collected virus genetic information reported during the outbreak and systemically analyzed the relationship of spike sequences and epidemiology. We found sequential emergence of the spike mutations in 2 superspreaders. In vivo virulence of the mutant viruses seems to decline in human patients, as assessed by fever duration in affected persons. In addition, neutralizing activity against these 2 mutant viruses in serum samples from mice immunized with wild-type spike antigen were gradually reduced, suggesting emergence and wide spread of neutralization escapers during the outbreak.

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  • Assessment of Economic Burden of Concurrent Measles and Rubella Outbreaks, Romania, 2011–2012
    J. Njau et al.
  • Phenotypic and Genomic Analyses of Burkholderia stabilis Clinical Contamination, Switzerland
    H. Seth-Smith et al.
        View Abstract

    A recent hospital outbreak related to premoistened gloves used to wash patients exposed the difficulties of defining Burkholderia species in clinical settings. The outbreak strain displayed key B. stabilis phenotypes, including the inability to grow at 42°C; we used whole-genome sequencing to confirm the pathogen was B. stabilis. The outbreak strain genome comprises 3 chromosomes and a plasmid, sharing an average nucleotide identity of 98.4% with B. stabilis ATCC27515 BAA-67, but with 13% novel coding sequences. The genome lacks identifiable virulence factors and has no apparent increase in encoded antimicrobial drug resistance, few insertion sequences, and few pseudogenes, suggesting this outbreak was an opportunistic infection by an environmental strain not adapted to human pathogenicity. The diversity among outbreak isolates (22 from patients and 16 from washing gloves) is only 6 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, although the genome remains plastic, with large elements stochastically lost from outbreak isolates.

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  • Performance of 2 Commercial Serologic Tests for Diagnosis of Zika Virus Infection
    S. Matheus et al.
  • Respiratory Syncytial Virus Seasonality, Beijing, China, 2007–2015
    J. Yu et al.
  • Use of Single-Injection Recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Vaccine to Protect Nonhuman Primates Against Lethal Nipah Virus Disease
    C. E. Mire et al.
  • Joint Estimation of Relative Risk for Dengue and Zika Infections, Colombia, 2015–2016
    D. Martínez-Bello et al.
  • Novel Orthobunyavirus Causing Severe Kidney Disease in Broiler Chickens, Malaysia, 2014–2017
    V. Palya et al.
  • Patterns of Abundance, Host Use, and Everglades Virus Infection in Culex (Melanoconion) cedecei Mosquitoes, Florida, USA
    I. J. Hoyer et al.

Historical Review

  • Equine Influenza Virus—A Neglected, Reemergent Disease Threat
    A. Sack et al.
        View Abstract

    Equine influenza virus (EIV) is a common, highly contagious equid respiratory disease. Historically, EIV outbreaks have caused high levels of equine illness and economic damage. Outbreaks have occurred worldwide in the past decade. The risk for EIV infection is not limited to equids; dogs, cats, and humans are susceptible. In addition, equids are at risk from infection with avian influenza viruses, which can increase mortality rates. EIV is spread by direct and indirect contact, and recent epizootics also suggest wind-aided aerosol transmission. Increased international transport and commerce in horses, along with difficulties in controlling EIV with vaccination, could lead to emergent EIV strains and potential global spread. We review the history and epidemiology of EIV infections, describe neglected aspects of EIV surveillance, and discuss the potential for novel EIV strains to cause substantial disease burden and subsequent economic distress.

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  • New Delhi Metallo-β-Lactamase 5–Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae Sequence Type 258, Southwest China, 2017
    X. Zhang et al.
  • Scrub Typhus in Continental Chile, 2016–2018
    T. Weitzel et al.
        View Abstract

    Endemic scrub typhus was recently detected on Chiloé Island in southern Chile. We report a series of cases, acquired over a wide geographical range in continental Chile during 2016–2018, demonstrating that this emerging rickettsial infection is also found on the mainland of South America.

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  • Increase in Enterovirus D68 Infections in Young Children, United Kingdom, 2006–2016
    E. Kamau et al.
        View Abstract

    We determined the change in seroprevalence of enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) in the United Kingdom in age-stratified cohorts from 2006 to 2016, the period during which EV-D68 emerged as a cause of severe respiratory disease occasionally leading to paralysis. Infections were acquired primarily in infants and young children, and incidence was markedly higher in 2016.

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  • Enterovirus A71 Subgenogroup C1 Isolates Associated with Neurologic Disease, France, 2016
    S. Ngangas et al.
  • Pertactin-Negative and Filamentous Hemagglutinin-Negative Bordetella pertussis, Australia, 2013–2017
    Z. Xu et al.
  • Outbreak of Vaccinia Virus Infection from Occupational Exposure, China, 2017
    B. Lu et al.
        View Abstract

    Human infections with vaccinia virus (VACV), mostly from laboratory accidents or contact with infected animals, have occurred since smallpox was eradicated in 1980. No recent cases have been reported in China. We report on an outbreak of VACV from occupational exposure to rabbit skins inoculated with VACV.

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Research Letters

Volume 25, Number 7—July 2019


  • Added Value of Comprehensive Program to Provide Universal Access to Care for Sputum Smear–Negative Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis, China
    F. Huang et al.


  • Essential Role of Interferon Response in Containing Human Pathogenic Bourbon Virus
    J. Fuchs et al.
  • Environmental Hotspots for Azole Resistance Selection of Aspergillus fumigatus, the Netherlands
    S. E. Schoustra et al.
  • High-Complexity Plasmodium falciparum Infection as a Result of Population Displacement in Northeastern Nigeria
    B. Yakubu et al.
  • Asymptomatic Dengue Virus Infections, Cambodia, 2012–2013
    S. Ly et al.
  • Hospital-Associated Multicenter Outbreak of Emerging Fungus Candida auris, Colombia, 2016
    P. A. Armstrong et al.
  • Mitochondrial Junction Region as Genotyping Marker for Cyclospora cayetanensis
    F. S. Nascimento et al.


  • Salmonella enterica I 4,[5],12:i:- Associated with Lesions Typical of Swine Enteric Salmonellosis
    B. L. Arruda et al.
  • Dengue Outbreak during Ongoing Civil War, Taiz, Yemen
    K. A. Alghazali et al.
        View Abstract

    We identified dengue in ≈51% of patients given a clinical diagnosis of suspected dengue in Taiz, Yemen, during 2016. The cosmopolitan genotype of dengue virus type 2 was most common; viruses appeared to have originated in Saudi Arabia. Damage to public health infrastructure during ongoing civil war might enable dengue to become endemic to Yemen.

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  • Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in Homeless Population, Washington, USA
    J. Boonyaratanakornkit et al.
  • Low Circulation of Subclade A1 Enterovirus D68 Strains in Senegal during 2014 North American Outbreak
    A. Fall et al.
  • Diagnosis of Chagasic Encephalitis by Sequencing of 28S rRNA Gene
    A. Meer et al.
  • Oropharyngeal Gonorrhea in Absence of Urogenital Gonorrhea in a Sex Network Including Men and Women, Australia, 2018
    V. J. Cornelisse et al.
  • Whole-Blood Testing for Diagnosis of Acute Zika Virus Infections in Routine Diagnostic Setting
    J. Voermans et al.
        View Abstract

    We evaluated the benefit of whole blood versus plasma to detect acute Zika virus infections. Comparison of Zika virus quantitative reverse transcription PCR results in single timepoint whole blood–plasma pairs from 227 patients with suspected Zika virus infection resulted in confirmation of 8 additional patients with Zika virus infection.

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  • Microbiome and Antimicrobial Resistance Gene Dynamics in International Travelers
    C. Langelier et al.
  • Molecular Epidemiology of Human Parechovirus Type 3 Upsurge in 2 Hospitals, Freiburg, Germany, 2018
    R. Elling et al.

Research Letters

  • Identification of Internationally Disseminated Ceftriaxone-Resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae Strain FC428, China
    S. Chen et al.
        View Abstract

    In 2016, we identified a ceftriaxone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolate in China. The strain genotype was identical to the resistant clone FC428 that originated in Japan. Enhanced international collaborative surveillance programs are crucial to track the transmission of the ceftriaxone-resistant clones.

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  • Echinococcus canadensis G8 Tapeworm Infection in Sheep, China, 2018
    R. Hua et al.
  • Prevalence of Mycobacterium bovis Infection in African Wild Dogs, Kruger National Park, South Africa
    R. L. Higgitt et al.
  • Elizabethkingia bruuniana Infections in Humans, Taiwan, 2005–2017
    J. Lin et al.

Volume 25, Number 8—August 2019


  • Zika Virus Infection in Pregnant Women, Yucatan, Mexico
    Y. Romer et al.