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Disclaimer: Ahead of print articles are not considered as final versions. Any changes will be reflected in the online version in the month the article is officially released.

Issues Available

Volume 24, Number 6—June 2018


  • Ferrets as Models for Influenza Virus Transmission Studies and Pandemic Risk Assessments
    J. Belser et al.


  • Absence of Nosocomial Transmission of Imported Lassa Fever during Use of Standard Barrier Nursing Methods
    A. Grahn et al.


  • Human Infections with Multistress-Tolerant Campylobacter jejuni
    E. Oh et al.
  • Hepatitis E in Long-Term Travelers from the Netherlands to Subtropical and Tropical Countries, 2008–2011
    F. Elfrink et al.
        View Abstract

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a common cause of acute viral hepatitis. Virus genotypes 1 and 2 infect humans in developing countries by the fecal–oral route. To assess attack rates and disease incidence for travelers, we prospectively studied 604 long-term travelers to subtropical and tropical countries. Participants donated blood samples pretravel and posttravel and kept a diary. A total of 89/604 (15%) pretravel samples were positive for HEV IgG by ELISA, suggesting previous HEV infection. Seroconversion for HEV was found for 19/515 travelers (attack rate 3.7%, incidence 1.8 cases/1,000 person-weeks). We believe there is a substantial risk for acquiring HEV infection among long-term travelers. Although HEV infection does not seem to be a major problem in this healthy cohort, hygienic measures should be stressed in all pretravel health advice, particularly for pregnant women and immunocompromised travelers who are at risk for severe disease.

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  • Occupation-Associated Fatal Limbic Encephalitis Caused by Variegated Squirrel-1 Bornavirus, Germany, 2013
    D. Tappe et al.
    View Summary

    This case underscores the risk for spillover infections from exotic squirrel species.

  • Influenza D Virus Infection in Feral Swine Populations, United States
    L. Ferguson et al.
  • Bioclinical Score to Predict Nephropathia Epidemica Severity at Hospital Admission
    M. Hentzien et al.
    View Summary

    Score including visual disorder, nephrotoxic drug intake, white blood cell count, thrombocytopenia, and hematuria discriminates patients at low, intermediate, or high risk of severe disease and could be helpful in patient triage and management.

  • Genomic Epidemiology of Global Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacter spp., 2008–2014
    G. Peirano et al.
  • Prion Disease in Dromedary Camels, Algeria
    B. Babelhadj et al.
        View Abstract

    Prions cause fatal and transmissible neurodegenerative diseases, including Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans, scrapie in small ruminants, and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). After the BSE epidemic, and the associated human infections, began in 1996 in the United Kingdom, general concerns have been raised about animal prions. We detected a prion disease in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Algeria. Symptoms suggesting prion disease occurred in 3.1% of dromedaries brought for slaughter to Ouargla abattoir in 2015–2016. We confirmed diagnosis by detecting pathognomonic neurodegeneration and disease-specific prion protein (PrPSc) in brain tissues from 3 symptomatic animals. Prion detection in lymphoid tissues is suggestive of the infectious nature of the disease. PrPSc biochemical characterization showed differences with BSE and scrapie. Our identification of this prion disease in a geographically widespread livestock species requires urgent enforcement of surveillance and assessment of the potential risks to human and animal health.

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  • Widespread Treponema pallidum Infection in Nonhuman Primates, Tanzania
    I. S. Chuma et al.
  • Genomic Sequencing of Bordetella pertussis for Epidemiology and Global Surveillance of Whooping Cough
    V. Bouchez et al.
        View Abstract

    Bordetella pertussis causes whooping cough, a highly contagious respiratory disease that is reemerging in many world regions. The spread of antigen-deficient strains may threaten acellular vaccine efficacy. Dynamics of strain transmission are poorly defined because of shortcomings in current strain genotyping methods. Our objective was to develop a whole-genome genotyping strategy with sufficient resolution for local epidemiologic questions and sufficient reproducibility to enable international comparisons of clinical isolates. We defined a core genome multilocus sequence typing scheme comprising 2,038 loci and demonstrated its congruence with whole-genome single-nucleotide polymorphism variation. Most cases of intrafamilial groups of isolates or of multiple isolates recovered from the same patient were distinguished from temporally and geographically cocirculating isolates. However, epidemiologically unrelated isolates were sometimes nearly undistinguishable. We set up a publicly accessible core genome multilocus sequence typing database to enable global comparisons of B. pertussis isolates, opening the way for internationally coordinated surveillance.

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  • Novel Parvovirus Related to Primate Bufaviruses in Dogs
    V. Martella et al.


  • Foot-and-Mouth Disease in the Middle East Caused by an A/ASIA/G-VII Virus Lineage, 2015–2016
    K. Bachanek-Bankowska et al.
        View Abstract

    Phylogenetic analyses of foot-and-mouth disease type A viruses in the Middle East during 2015–2016 identified viruses belonging to the A/ASIA/G-VII lineage, which originated in the Indian subcontinent. Changes in a critical antigenic site within capsid viral protein 1 suggest possible evolutionary pressure caused by an intensive vaccination program.

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  • Novel Poxvirus in Proliferative Lesions of Wild Rodents in East-Central Texas
    C. L. Hodo et al.
  • Importation of Human Seoul Virus Infection to Germany from Indonesia
    J. Hofmann et al.
  • Mixed Leptospira Infections in Diverse Reservoir Host Community in Madagascar
    M. Moseley et al.
  • Marburg Virus Infection in Egyptian Rousette Bats, South Africa
    J. T. Paweska et al.
  • Brucella suis Infection in Dog Fed Raw Meat, the Netherlands, 2016
    M. van Dijk et al.
        View Abstract

    A Brucella suis biovar 1 infection was diagnosed in a dog without typical exposure risks, but the dog had been fed a raw meat–based diet (hare carcasses imported from Argentina). Track and trace investigations revealed that the most likely source of infection was the dog’s raw meat diet.

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  • Pulmonary Infections with Nontuberculous Mycobacteria, Catalonia, Spain, 1994–2014
    M. Santin et al.
  • Human Endophthalmitis Caused By Pseudorabies Virus Infection, China, 2017
    J. Ai et al.
  • Peromyscus eremicus mice as Reservoir for Sin Nombre Virus, Death Valley National Park, California, USA
    J. E. Burns et al.
  • Westward Spread of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus among Humans, China
    Q. Yang et al.
        View Abstract

    We report infection of humans with highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H7N9) virus in Shaanxi, China, in May 2017. We obtained complete genomes for samples from 5 patients and from live poultry markets or farms in 4 cities. Results indicate that H7N9 is spreading westward from southern and eastern China.

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  • Intense Focus of Alveolar Echinococcosis, South Kyrgyzstan
    B. Bebezov et al.
        View Abstract

    Human alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a highly pathogenic zoonotic parasitic disease caused by Echinococcus multilocularis. An ultrasound study in southern Kyrgyzstan during 2012 revealed a prevalence of 4.1% probable or confirmed AE and an additional 2.1% possible AE, representing an emerging concernsituation. The risk for probable or confirmed AE was significantly higher in dog owners.

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  • Detection of Low-Pathogenicity Influenza Virus A(H7N3) during a Duck Mortality Event, Cambodia, 2017
    A. Suttie et al.
  • Pathogenic Leptospira Species in Insectivorous Bats, China, 2015
    H. Han et al.
  • Listeriosis Outbreaks Associated with Soft Cheeses, United States, 1998–2014
    K. Jackson et al.
  • Novel Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Genotype Levels as Herald of Seasonal Salmonellosis Epidemics
    C. Sotomayor et al.
  • Veal Liver as Food Vehicle for Human Campylobacter Infections
    C. Gaulin et al.

Research Letters

  • Ehrlichia muris in Ixodes cookei Ticks, Northeastern United States, 2016–2017
    G. Xu et al.
  • Reemergence of Human Monkeypox in Nigeria, 2017
    A. Yinka-Ogunleye et al.
        View Abstract

    In Nigeria, before 2017 the most recent case of human monkeypox had been reported in 1978. By mid-November 2017, a large outbreak caused by the West African clade resulted in 146 suspected cases and 42 laboratory-confirmed cases from 14 states. Although the source is unknown, multiple sources are suspected.

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  • Molecular Diagnosis of Taenia saginata Infection in 2 Schoolchildren, Myanmar
    E. Won et al.
  • Mycobacterium bovis Infection of Red Fox, France
    L. Michelet et al.
  • Human Pasteurella multocida Infection with Likely Zoonotic Transmission from a Pet Dog, Spain
    F. Abreu et al.
  • Reassortant H5N6 Clade of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus, Taiwan, 2017
    L. Chen et al.
  • Strengthening Surveillance during Monkeypox Outbreak, Republic of the Congo, 2017
    R. H. Doshi et al.
  • Mosquitoborne Sindbis Virus Infection and Long-Term Illness
    Å. Gylfe et al.
  • Symptom-Based Ebola Risk Score for Ebola Virus Disease, Conakry, Guinea
    B. Ingelbeen et al.

Volume 24, Number 7—July 2018


  • Progress in Vaccine-Preventable and Respiratory Infectious Diseases—First 10 Years of the National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2006–2015
    A. J. Anderson et al.
  • Integrated Serologic Surveillance of Population Immunity and Disease Transmission
    B. F. Arnold et al.


  • Typhus Group Rickettsiosis, Germany, 2010–2017
    J. Rauch et al.


  • Virus RNA Load in Patients with Tick-Borne Encephalitis, Slovenia
    A. Saksida et al.
  • Pneumococcal Meningitis in Adults 6 Years after Sequential Introduction of PCV7 and PCV13, Israel
    G. Regev-Yochay et al.
  • Global Distribution of Human Protoparvoviruses
    E. Väisänen et al.
  • Serotype 3 as a Leading Cause of Complicated Pediatric Pneumococcal Pneumonia even among PCV13-Vaccinated Children, Portugal, 2010–2015
    C. Silva-Costa et al.
  • Geographically Diverse Clusters of Nontoxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae Infection, Germany, 2016–2017
    A. Dangel et al.
  • Molecular Epidemiology of Human Adenovirus-Associated Febrile Respiratory Illness in Soldiers, South Korea
    J. Heo et al.


  • Diphtheria Outbreak in Amerindian Communities, Wonken, Venezuela, 2016–2017
  • Diagnosis of Methionine/Valine Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease by Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification of Cerebrospinal Fluid
    D. Bougard et al.

Research Letter

  • Poultry Infection with Influenza Viruses of Wild Bird Origin, China, 2016
    Z. Yu et al.


  • Adenovirus Type 4 Respiratory Infections among Civilian Adults, Northeastern United States, 2011–2015
    B. L. Lynch et al.

Volume 24, Number 8—August 2018


  • Therapeutic and Transmission-Blocking 
Efficacy of Dihydroartemisinin/Piperaquine and Chloroquine against Plasmodium vivax Malaria, Cambodia
    J. Popovici et al.
  • Dual Genotype Infection of Orientia tsutsugamushi in Patient with Rash and Eschar, Vietnam
    N. Le-Viet et al.

Research Letter

  • Plasmodium falciparum Plasmepsin 2 Duplications, West Africa
    J. Inoue et al.