Ahead of Print / In Press
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Volume 25, Number 7—July 2019
Added Value of Comprehensive Program to Provide Universal Access to Care for Sputum Smear–Negative Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis, China
The increase in drug-resistant tuberculosis in China calls for scaling up rapid diagnosis. We evaluated introduction of rapid resistance testing by line-probe assay for all patients with a diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in 2 prefectures in middle and eastern China. We analyzed sputum samples for smear-positive patients and cultures for smear-negative patients. We used a before–after comparison of baseline and intervention periods (12 months each) and analyzed data for 5,222 baseline period patients and 4,364 intervention period patients. The number of patients with rifampin resistance increased from 30 in the baseline period to 97 in the intervention period for smear-positive patients and from 0 to 13 for smear-negative patients, reflecting a low proportion of positive cultures (410/2,844, 14.4%). Expanding rapid testing for drug resistance for smear-positive patients resulted in a 3-fold increase in patients with diagnoses of rifampin-resistant tuberculosis. However, testing smear-negative patients had limited added value because of a low culture-positive rate.
- Bacillus cereus–Attributable Primary Cutaneous Anthrax-Like Infection in Newborn Infants, India
- Prescribing Patterns for Treatment of Mycobacterium avium Complex and M. xenopi Pulmonary Disease in Ontario, Canada
- Carbapenem-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa at US Emerging Infections Program Sites, 2015
- Essential Role of Interferon Response in Containing Human Pathogenic Bourbon Virus
- Environmental Hotspots for Azole Resistance Selection of Aspergillus fumigatus, the Netherlands
- High-Complexity Plasmodium falciparum Infection as a Result of Population Displacement in Northeastern Nigeria
- Asymptomatic Dengue Virus Infections, Cambodia, 2012–2013
- Hospital-Associated Multicenter Outbreak of Emerging Fungus Candida auris, Colombia, 2016
- Mitochondrial Junction Region as Genotyping Marker for Cyclospora cayetanensis
- Macrolide-Resistant Mycoplasma genitalium in Southeastern Region of the Netherlands, 2014–2017
- Nationwide Stepwise Emergence and Evolution of Multidrug-Resistant Campylobacter jejuni ST5136, United Kingdom
Facility-Associated Release of Polioviruses into Communities—Risks for the Posteradication Era
The Global Polio Eradication Initiative continues to make progress toward the eradication target. Indigenous wild poliovirus (WPV) type 2 was last detected in 1999, WPV type 3 was last detected in 2012, and over the past 2 years WPV type 1 has been detected only in parts of 2 countries (Afghanistan and Pakistan). Once the eradication of poliomyelitis is achieved, infectious and potentially infectious poliovirus materials retained in laboratories, vaccine production sites, and other storage facilities will continue to pose a risk for poliovirus reintroduction into communities. The recent breach in containment of WPV type 2 in an inactivated poliovirus vaccine manufacturing site in the Netherlands prompted this review, which summarizes information on facility-associated release of polioviruses into communities reported over >8 decades. Successful polio eradication requires the management of poliovirus containment posteradication to prevent the consequences of the reestablishment of poliovirus transmission.
- Salmonella enterica I 4,,12:i:- Associated with Lesions Typical of Swine Enteric Salmonellosis
Dengue Outbreak during Ongoing Civil War, Taiz, Yemen
We identified dengue in ≈51% of patients given a clinical diagnosis of suspected dengue in Taiz, Yemen, during 2016. The cosmopolitan genotype of dengue virus type 2 was most common; viruses appeared to have originated in Saudi Arabia. Damage to public health infrastructure during ongoing civil war might enable dengue to become endemic to Yemen.
Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in Homeless Populations, Washington, USA
Homelessness has not previously been identified as a risk factor for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. We conducted an observational study at an urban safety-net hospital in Washington, USA, during 2012–2017. Hospitalized adults with RSV were more likely to be homeless, and several clinical outcome measures were worse with RSV than with influenza.
- Low Circulation of Subclade A1 Enterovirus D68 Strains in Senegal during 2014 North American Outbreak
Diagnosis of Chagasic Encephalitis by Sequencing of 28S rRNA Gene
We report a case of chagasic encephalitis diagnosed by 28S rRNA sequencing. The diagnosis of chagasic encephalitis is challenging, given the broad differential diagnosis for central nervous system lesions in immunocompromised patients and low sensitivity of traditional diagnostics. Sequencing should be part of the diagnostic armamentarium for potential chagasic encephalitis.
- Oropharyngeal Gonorrhea in Absence of Urogenital Gonorrhea in a Sex Network Including Men and Women, Australia, 2018
Whole-Blood Testing for Diagnosis of Acute Zika Virus Infections in Routine Diagnostic Setting
We evaluated the benefit of whole blood versus plasma to detect acute Zika virus infections. Comparison of Zika virus quantitative reverse transcription PCR results in single timepoint whole blood–plasma pairs from 227 patients with suspected Zika virus infection resulted in confirmation of 8 additional patients with Zika virus infection.
Microbiome and Antimicrobial Resistance Gene Dynamics in International Travelers
We used metagenomic next-generation sequencing to longitudinally assess the gut microbiota and antimicrobial resistomes of international travelers to clarify global exchange of resistant organisms. Travel resulted in an increase in antimicrobial resistance genes and a greater proportion of Escherichia species within gut microbial communities without impacting diversity.
- Molecular Epidemiology of Human Parechovirus Type 3 Upsurge in 2 Hospitals, Freiburg, Germany, 2018
- Carbapenem and Cephalosporin Resistance among Enterobacteriaceae in Healthcare-Associated Infections, California, USA
Nontuberculous Mycobacteria, Botswana, 2011–2014
We documented a 6-fold increase in the frequency of nontuberculous mycobacteria isolated from clinical samples in Botswana during 2011–2014. Because antituberculosis treatment is often initiated only on the basis of acid-fast bacilli smear-positive microscopy results, some patients with nontuberculous mycobacterial infections might have received inappropriate treatment.
Identification of Internationally Disseminated Ceftriaxone-Resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae Strain FC428, China
In 2016, we identified a ceftriaxone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolate in China. The strain genotype was identical to the resistant clone FC428 that originated in Japan. Enhanced international collaborative surveillance programs are crucial to track the transmission of the ceftriaxone-resistant clones.
- Echinococcus canadensis G8 Tapeworm Infection in Sheep, China, 2018
Mycobacterium bovis Infection in African Wild Dogs, Kruger National Park, South Africa
We screened African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) in Kruger National Park, South Africa, for Mycobacterium bovis infection using an interferon-gamma release assay. We detected M. bovis sensitization in 20 of 21 packs; overall apparent infection prevalence was 83%. These animals experience high infection pressure, which may affect long-term survival and conservation strategies.
- Elizabethkingia bruuniana Infections in Humans, Taiwan, 2005–2017
- Zoonotic Bacteria in Fleas Parasitizing Common Voles, Northwestern Spain
Increased Threat of Urban Malaria from Anopheles stephensi Mosquitoes, Africa
Malaria continues to be a major health threat in Africa, mainly in rural areas. Recently, the urban malaria vector Anopheles stephensi invaded Djibouti and Ethiopia, potentially spreading to other areas of Africa. Urgent action is needed to prevent urban malaria epidemics from emerging and causing a public health disaster.
- Disseminated Metacestode Versteria Sp. Infection in Woman, Pennsylvania, USA
Outbreak of African Swine Fever, Vietnam, 2019
African swine fever is one of the most dangerous diseases of swine. We confirmed the 2019 outbreak in Vietnam by real-time reverse transcription PCR. The causative strain belonged to p72 genotype II and was 100% identical with viruses isolated in China (2018) and Georgia (2007). International prevention and control collaboration is needed.
- Expansion of Deadly Salamander Fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans, Europe
- Human Enterovirus C105, China, 2017
- Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Genome in Tick from Migratory Birds, Italy
- Low-Grade Endemicity of Opisthorchiasis, Yangon, Myanmar
- Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Antimicrobial Drug Use, United States, 2014–2015
- Nontoxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae Infections, Europe
Books and Media
- Bugs as Drugs: Therapeutic Microbes for the Prevention and Treatment of Disease
- Ethical Considerations for Movement Mapping to Identify Disease Transmission Hotspots
Volume 25, Number 8—August 2019
- Zika Virus Infection in Pregnant Women, Yucatan, Mexico
- Multistate Outbreak of Listeriosis Associated with Packaged Leafy Green Salads, United States and Canada, 2015–2016
Cross-Protection of Dengue Virus Infection against Congenital Zika Syndrome, Northeastern Brazil
The Zika virus outbreak in Latin America resulted in congenital malformations, called congenital Zika syndrome (CZS). For unknown reasons, CZS incidence was highest in northeastern Brazil; one potential explanation is that dengue virus (DENV)–mediated immune enhancement may promote CZS development. In contrast, our analyses of historical DENV genomic data refuted the hypothesis that unique genome signatures for northeastern Brazil explain the uneven dispersion of CZS cases. To confirm our findings, we performed serotype-specific DENV neutralization tests in a case–control framework in northeastern Brazil among 29 Zika virus–seropositive mothers of neonates with CZS and 108 Zika virus–seropositive control mothers. Neutralization titers did not differ significantly between groups. In contrast, DENV seroprevalence and median number of neutralized serotypes were significantly lower among the mothers of neonates with CZS. Supported by model analyses, our results suggest that multitypic DENV infection may protect from, rather than enhance, development of CZS.
- Direct Medical Costs of Reported Travel-Related Infections in Ontario, Canada, 2012–2014
- Artyfechinostomum sufrartyfex Trematode Infection in Children, Bihar, India
- Wild-Type Yellow Fever Virus in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Child
- Emergent Invasive Group A Streptococcus dysgalactiae Subspecies equisimilis Recovered, United States, 2015–2018
- Case Series Study of Melioidosis, Colombia
- Lethal Encephalitis in Seals with Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infection, China
- Marburgvirus in Egyptian Fruit Bats, Zambia
- Poliomyelitis-like Presentation of Powassan Virus with Anterior Horn Cell Involvement, Canada
- Intact Mycobacterium leprae Isolated from Placenta in a Pregnant Woman, China
- Erwinia billingiae as an Unusual Cause of Septic Arthritis, France, 2017
- Bejel, a Nonvenereal Treponematosis, among Men who have Sex with Men, Japan
Volume 25, Number 9—September 2019
- Clinical Characteristics and Treatment Outcomes for Patients Infected with Mycobacterium haemophilum
- Link between Candida auris in Germany and Previous Exposure to Foreign Healthcare