Volume 1, Number 2—April 1995
Travel and the Emergence of Infectious Diseases
|Emergence of infectious diseases is complex.|
|Infectious diseases are dynamic.|
|Most new infections are not caused by genuinely new pathogens.|
|Agents involved in new and reemergent infections cross taxonomic lines to include viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and helminths.|
|The concept of the microbe as the cause of disease is inadequate and incomplete.|
|Human activities are the most potent factors driving disease emergence.|
|Social, economic, political, climatic, technologic, and environmental factors shape disease patterns and influence emergence.|
|Understanding and responding to disease emergence require a global perspective, conceptually and geographically.|
|The current global situation favors disease emergence.|
*Adapted from Wilson ME (6).
- Lederberg J, Shope RE, Oaks SC Jr, eds. Emerging infections: microbial threats to health in the United States. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1992.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Addressing emerging infectious disease threats: a prevention strategy for the United States. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1994.
- Wilson ME, Levins R, Spielman A. Disease in evolution: global changes and emergence of infectious diseases. New York: New York Academy of Sciences, 1994;740.
- Levins R, Awerbuch T, Brinkmann U, The emergence of new diseases. Am Sci. 1994;82:52–60.
- Wilson ME. A world guide to infections: diseases, distribution, diagnosis. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.
- Wilson ME. Disease in evolution: introduction. In: Wilson ME, Levins R, Spielman A, eds. Disease in evolution: global changes and emergence of infectious diseases. New York: New York Academy of Sciences, 1994;740:1-12.
- McNeill WH. Plagues and peoples. Garden City, N.Y.: Anchor Press/Doubleday, 1976.
- Hopkins DR. Princes and peasants: smallpox in history. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1983.
- World Health Organization. Smallpox: Yugoslavia. Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 1972;47:161–2.
- Crosby AW Jr. The Columbian exchange. Westport, Conn. Greenwood Press, 1972:219.
- Black FL. Why did they die? Science. 1992;258:1739–40. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Curtin PD. Death by migration: Europe's encounter with the tropical world in the nineteenth century. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1989.
- Bradley DJ. The scope of travel medicine: an introduction to the conference on international travel medicine. In: Steffen R, Lobel HO, Haworth J, Bradley, eds. Travel Medicine. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1989:1-9.
- Siem H, Bollini P, eds. Migration and health in the 1990s. International Migration 1992;30.
- Grubler A, Nakicenovic N. Evolution of transport systems. Laxenburg, Vienna: ILASA, 1991.
- Haggett P. Geographical aspects of the emergence of infectious diseases. Geogr Ann 1994;76 B(2):91-104.
- Goma Epidemiology Group. Public health impact of Rwandan refugee crisis: what happened in Goma, Zaire, in July, 1994? Lancet. 1995;345:339–44. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Meslin F-X. Surveillance and control of emerging zoonoses. World Health Stat Q. 1992;45:200–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tesh RB, Jahrling R, Salas R, Shope RE. Description of Guanarito virus (Arenaviridae: Arenavirus), the etiologic agent of Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1994;50:452–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Coimbra TLM, Nassar ES, Burattini NM, A new arenavirus isolated from a fatal case of haemorrhagic fever in Brazil. Lancet. 1994;343:391–2. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Glass RI, Claeson M, Blake PA, Waldman RJ, Pierce NR. Cholera in Africa: lessons on transmission and control for Latin America. Lancet. 1991;338:791–5. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Moore PS, Reeves MW, Schwartz B, Gellin BG, Broome CV. Intercontinental spread of an epidemic group A Neisseria meningitidis strain. Lancet. 1989;2:260–3. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cookson B, Johnson AP, Azadian B, International inter- and intra-hospital patient spread of a multiple antibiotic-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae. J Infect Dis. 1995;171:511–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mercer A, Seaman J, Sondorp E. Kala azar in eastern Upper Nile Province, southern Sudan. Lancet. 1995;345:187–8. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Glass RI, Holmgren I, Haley CE, Predisposition to cholera of individuals with O blood group. Am J Epidemiol. 1985;121:791–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Clemens JD, Sack DA, Harris JR, ABO blood groups and cholera: new observations on specificity of risk and modifications of vaccine efficacy. J Infect Dis. 1989;159:770–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Brown KE, Hibbs JR, Gallinella G, Resistance to parvovirus B19 infection due to lack of virus receptor (erythrocyte P antigen). N Engl J Med. 1994;330:1192–6. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Boren T, Falk P, Roth KA, Larson G, Normark S. Attachment of Helicobacter pylori to human gastric epithelium mediated by blood group antigens. Science. 1993;292:1982–95.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Update: outbreak of Legionnaires' disease associated with a cruise ship. MMWR. 1994;43:574–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Driver DR, Valway SE, Morgan M, Onorato IM, Castro KG. Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis associated with air travel. JAMA. 1994;272:10311–35. DOIGoogle Scholar
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Exposure of passengers and flight crew to Mycobacterium tuberculosis on commercial aircraft, 1992-1995. MMWR. 1995;44:137–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Carlton JT, Geller JB. Ecological roulette: the global transport of non-indigenous marine organisms. Science. 1993;261:78–82. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Travis J. Invader threatens Black, Azov Seas. Science. 1993;262:1366–7. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
- World Health Organization. Cholera in the Americas. Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 1992;67:33–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- McCarthy SA, McPhearson RM, Guarino AM. Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 and cargo ships entering Gulf of Mexico. Lancet. 1992;339:624–5. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
- DePaola A, Capers GM, Moters ML, Isolation of Latin American epidemic strain of Vibrio cholerae O1 from US Gulf Coast. Lancet. 1992;339:624. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ramamurthy T, Garg S, Sharma R, Emergence of novel strain of Vibrio cholerae with epidemic potential in southern and eastern India. Lancet. 1993;341:703–4. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Albert MJ, Siddique AK, Islam MS, Large outbreak of clinical cholera due to Vibrio cholerae non-O1 in Bangladesh. Lancet. 1993;341:704.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Reiter P, Sprenger D. The used tire trade: a mechanism for the worldwide dispersal of container-breeding mosquitoes. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 1987;3:494–501.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Craven RB, Eliason DA, Francy P, Importation of Aedes albopictus and other exotic mosquito species into the United States in used tires from Asia. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 1988;4:138–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Moore CG, Francy DB, Eliason DA, Monath TP. Aedes albopictus in the United States: rapid spread of a potential disease vector. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 1988;4:356–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mitchell CJ, Niebylski ML, Smith GC, Isolation of eastern equine encephalitis virus from Aedes albopictus in Florida. Science. 1992;257:526–7. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Russell RC. Survival of insects in the wheel bays of a Boeing 747B aircraft on flights between tropical and temperate airports. Bull World Health Organ. 1987;65:659–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Martini GA, Siegert R, eds. Marburg virus disease. Berlin:Springer-Verlag, 1971.
- Weigler BJ, Hird DW, Hilliard JK, Lerche NW, Roberts JA, Scott LM. Epidemiology of cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 (B virus) infection and shedding in a large breeding cohort of rhesus macaques. J Infect Dis. 1993;167:257–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Desmyter J, LeDuc JW, Johnson KM, Brasseur F, Deckers C. van Ypersele de Strihou C. Laboratory rat-associated outbreak of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome due to Hantaan-like virus in Belgium. Lancet. 1983;ii:1445–8. DOIGoogle Scholar
- Fishman JA. Miniature swine as organ donors for man: strategies for prevention of xenotransplant-associated infections. Xenotransplantation. 1994;1:47–57. DOIGoogle Scholar
- Anderson PK, Morales FJ. The emergence of new plant diseases: the case of insect-transmitted plant viruses. In: Wilson ME, Levins R, Spielman A, eds. Disease in evolution: global changes and emergence of infectious diseases. New York: New York Academy of Sciences, 1994;740:181-94.
- Anderson RM, May RM. Infectious diseases of humans: dynamics and control. Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press, 1991.
- Spence DPS, Hotchkiss J, Williams CSD, Davies PDO. Tuberculosis and poverty. BMJ. 1993;307:759–61. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Maldonado YA, Nahlen BL, Roberto RR, Transmission of Plasmodium vivax malaria in San Diego County, California, 1986. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1990;42:3–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar