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Volume 10, Number 1—January 2004

Ecologic and Geographic Distribution of Filovirus Disease

A. Townsend Peterson*Comments to Author , John T. Bauer*, and James N. Mills†
Author affiliations: *University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas, USA; †Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

Main Article


Virus, location, dates, geographic coordinates, and literature citation for filovirus-caused hemorrhagic fever occurrences

Virus Country Apparent origin Dates Latitude Longitude Reference
Ebola Ivory Coast Cote d’Ivoire Tai National Park Nov. 1994 5.850
5.900 -7.367
-7.317 (7,24)
Ebola Ivory Coast Cote d’Ivoire or Liberia Plibo (Liberia) Dec. 1995 4.589 -7.673 (25)
Ebola Sudan Sudan Nzara June–Nov 1976 4.643 28.253 (3)
Ebola Sudan Sudan Nzara July–Oct 1979 4.643 28.253 (4)
Ebola Sudan Uganda Gulu Oct 2000–Feb 2001 2.783 32.300 (26)
Ebola Zaire DRC Yambuku Sept–Oct 1976 2.817 22.233 (2)
Ebola Zaire DRC Bonduni June 1977 2.967 19.350 (10)
Ebola Zaire Gabon Minkebe, Dec 1994–Feb 1995 1.733 12.817 (8)
Mekouka, 1.400 12.983
and/or Andock 1.483 12.917
Ebola Zaire DRC Kikwit Jan–Jul 1995 -5.058 18.909 (11)
Ebola Zaire Gabon Mayibout Feb 1996 -1.117 -13.100 (8)
Ebola Zaire Gabon Booue Jul 1996–Mar 1997 -0.100 -11.95 (8)
Ebola Zaire Gabon and DRC Ekata Dec 2001–2002 0.706 14.275 (12)
Marburg Zimbabwe Wankie?a Feb 1975 -18.367 26.483 (6)
Marburg Kenya Nzoia or Mt. Elgon Jan 1980 0.450 34.617 (19)
Marburg Kenya Mt. Elgon? 1987 1.133 34.550 (20)
Marburg DRC Durba Apr 1999–Sept. 2000 3.117 29.583 (2729)

aReported location where patient received a “bite.” Although some investigators felt the disease was related to the bite, the patient had traveled widely in Zimbabwe and parts of South Africa and was exposed to wildlife at several locations in Zimbabwe (6).
DRC, Democratic Republic of the Congo; WHO. World Health Organization.

Main Article

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Main Article

1Although filovirus taxonomy undergoes frequent revision, we follow nomenclature most recently established by the International Committee of Taxonomy of Viruses in 2002. Filoviruses consist of two genera. The genus Marburgvirus contains one species, Lake Victoria marburgvirus, with several recognized strains, and Ebolavirus contains four species: Ivory Coast ebolavirus, Reston ebolavirus, Sudan ebolavirus, and Zaire ebolavirus. For simplicity, we refer to the viruses using the unitalicized vernacular (e.g., Ebola Zaire). We use “Ebola viruses” to refer in general to members of Ebolavirus and “Marburg viruses” to refer in general to members of Marburgvirus. The diseases caused by filoviruses are termed Ebola hemorrhagic fever (HF; diseases caused by Ebola viruses) and Marburg HF (diseases caused by Marburg viruses).

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